Biomedical Imaging Techniques

Biomedical Imaging Techniques

Shanmuga Sundari Ilangovan (VIT University, India), Biswanath Mahanty (INHA University, Republic of Korea) and Shampa Sen (VIT University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9685-3.ch016
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Abstract

Biomedical imaging techniques had significantly improved the health care of patients. Image guided therapy has reduced the high risk of human errors with improved accuracy in disease detection and surgical procedures. The chapter provides an overview of existing imaging methods and current imaging approaches and their potential to unravel the challenges in medical field. First part of the chapter picture outs the basic concepts and mechanism of various imaging techniques that are currently in use. The second part explains about the features of image processing system and future trends in image guided therapy extended with a short discussion on radiation exposure in medical imaging. The authors trust the chapter to be beneficial to the beginners in the area of medical science and to the clinicians.
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Imaging Techniques

The basic principles of all imaging techniques are same. A beam of wave passes through the body/area under diagnosis, transmits or reflects back the radiation which will be captured by a detector and processed to get an image pattern. The type of wave differs for different modalities. CT involves the use of X-rays, whereas radio frequency waves and gamma rays are used for MRI and SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) respectively.

Conventional Film Radiography

With the development of X-rays, the first radiographic image was obtained through conventional film radiography. Conventional radiography contains X-ray film placed in between two screen supports and fluorescent screens. The setup is placed in between a couple of cassettes as shown in Figure 1. A beam of X-ray passes though the human body, hits the fluorescent screen and produces a photographic image pattern. The film is later removed, processed and developed with automated chemical film processor (Brant & Helms, 2012) in a dark room and a visible image pattern is obtained.

Figure 1.

X-ray film cassette of conventional radiography

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