Breast Cancer With Relevance for Heavy Metals, Mycotoxines, and Pesticides

Breast Cancer With Relevance for Heavy Metals, Mycotoxines, and Pesticides

Ait Sidi Brahim Malika (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Kiai Hajar (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Benidire Loubna (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Omar El Hiba (Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco), Makbal Rachida (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Benidire Leila (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Sellami Souad (Mohammed VI University Hospital, Morocco) and Rais S. Hanane (Mohammed VI University Hospital, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7775-1.ch009
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Certain environmental contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, and mycotoxins are presumed to play a crucial role in the etiology of breast cancer, which is the most common tumor in women worldwide. In fact, the exposure to heavy metals poses risk in causing human cancers. Several investigations indicated strong contribution of heavy metals especially copper, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, lead, and aluminum in breast cancer. Furthermore, it has been reported that the excessive use of pesticides in agriculture in order to improve the productivity contaminates food materials and can be responsible to induce breast cancer in women. It is also noted that some fungi produce several type of mycotoxins such us zearalenone, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin that are dangerous for human health and can especially cause breast cancer. Thus, the objective of this chapter is to discuss the experimental data regarding the involvement of heavy metals, pesticides, and mycotoxins as well as the recent insights on the molecular mechanisms involved in the progress of breast cancer.
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Risk Factors For Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease (Barnett et al., 2008). This means that several factors influence the risk of its occurrence. Nowadays, a number of risk factors for breast cancer have been identified, although, the involvement of some of them is still controverted. Female gender, age and country of birth are the strongest determinants of the disease risk. Herein, we will discuss some of the most common risk factors of breast cancer.

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