Brief Description of the Main Characteristics of the Earth-Atmosphere System

Brief Description of the Main Characteristics of the Earth-Atmosphere System

Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 44
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2636-0.ch001
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The chapter gives introductory concepts of the science of meteorology including astronomical data, basic information about the composition and structure of the atmosphere, determination of the main meteorological variables, solar radiation, longwave radiation of the Earth and atmosphere. There are given fundamentals of atmospheric thermodynamics and polytrophic changes in atmospheric air that include thermodynamic properties of dry and moist air and conditions for vertical air stability.
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Introductory Concepts

Meteorology (from Greek Meteora – atmospheric and celestial phenomena) is the science of the Earth’s atmosphere and the processes occurring in it. Meteorology applies close disciplines: actinometry, dynamic and synoptic meteorology, atmospheric optics, atmospheric electricity, aerology et al. that study:

  • The composition and structure of the atmosphere.

  • Heat exchange and thermal conditions in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface, including the radiation processes and different mechanisms of non-radiation exchange between the atmosphere and the underlying surface and the atmosphere inside.

  • Hydrologic cycle and phase transformation of water into the atmosphere during its interaction with the Earth’s surface.

  • Atmospheric movement – the general circulation of the atmosphere, part of its mechanism and local circulation.

  • The electric field of the atmosphere.

  • Optical and acoustic phenomena in the atmosphere.

An important task of meteorology is to build a physical-mathematical theory of atmospheric processes, which has the ultimate goal of the forecast atmospheric phenomena.

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