CAD Applied to the Design and Cost Reduction in the Use of Molds for DIE Casting Process

CAD Applied to the Design and Cost Reduction in the Use of Molds for DIE Casting Process

Julian Israel Aguilar-Duque (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Jesus Salinas-Coronado (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Hector E. Ruiz-yRuiz (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Guillermo Amaya-Parra (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Victor M. Juarez-Luna (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico) and Jose L. J. Sanchez-Gonzalez (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0130-5.ch014
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Abstract

During the last three decades the increase of utilities is the principal aim of the international companies, focus on this topic, many companies have been invested resources on investigation and innovation, develop new techniques and implementation of procedures standardized by the global competitors. According to the references mentioned before, a case of study is used to improve the productivity of a die casting process, the methodology used consists in the integration of a design technique and the methodology DMAIC. The results showed that the new design of the casting mold weight reduced by 18% percent the quantity of material requires for the original product, from an initial weight of 2.77 lb to 2.20 lb. Also, through the modification of gates and metal runners in the mold, a 60% reduction of material waste was achieved. With the new prototype, the scrap was reduced from 13.65% to a new 6.45% of the piece. This is a 54% reduction on the SCRAP. With the information above mentioned, it has been achieved a save of $2.23 USD per unit, a total of $25,958.00 USD by year.
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Dmaic (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control)

There are different ways to describe the perception of the methodology of Six Sigma (SS). The most common is “philosophy of work and philosophy of life”; for others it is a “business strategy”. In general, the aim of this methodology is to eliminate variability in the processes and achieve a level of 3.4 defects per million or less (Escalante Vázquez, 2004).

Cardenas (2013), indicates that the history of Six Sigma begins when Mikel Harry an engineer of Motorola, influenced the company to analyze the variation in processes, as a way to improve them. These variations are now known as a typical standard deviation, this ideas and concepts at the time have been represented by the greek letter sigma “σ.” This proposal became the starting point of the effort to improve the quality of Motorola, with a new target 3.4 ppm of defects in their processes, this objective catapulted the company to the success.

Nowadays, Six Sigma is considered as a management strategy that seeks improvement by incorporating the concept of error-free performance. This concept applies first at processes baseline operations and second at management processes, the main idea is “there are no industrial reasons to have different standards of satisfaction” (Escalante Vázquez, 2004).

According to Jiju, A. (2011), the benefits of adopting Six Sigma business strategy will have the following advantages:

  • Effective management decisions due to heavy reliance on data and facts instead of gut feelings and hunches. Hence, costs associated with firefighting and misdirected problem-solving efforts with no structured or disciplined methodology could be significantly reduced.

  • Increased understanding of customer needs and expectations, especially the critical-to-quality (CTQ) service performance characteristics that will have the greatest impact on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  • Increased cash flow by making processes more efficient and reliable.

  • Improved knowledge of the organization on various tools and techniques for problem-solving, leading to greater job satisfaction for employees.

  • Reduced number of non-value-added operations through systematic elimination, leading to faster delivery of service, quicker lead time to production, faster cycle time to process critical performance characteristics to customers and stakeholders.

  • Reduced variability in process performance, product capability and reliability, service delivery and performance, leading to more predictable and consistent level of product quality and service performance.

  • Transformation of organizational culture from being reactive to proactive thinking or mindset.

  • Created new customer opportunities and improve market position about competitors.

  • Improved internal communication between departments and groups.

  • Improved cross-functional teamwork across the entire organization, employee morale, and team spirit.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Silica Sand: Raw material wich is composed by bioxid of silice and is used to make molds and hearts for different pieces.

Die Casting: Shape or form by introducing molten metal or plastic into a reusable mold, esp under pressure, by gravity or by centrifugal force.

DMAIC: Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control is a data-driven quality strategy used to improve the process. It is an integral part of Six Sigma initiative.

Prototype: The original or model on wich something is based.

Permanent Mold: It is composed bu two half metallic parts, when they put together they generate a cavity and all the system of feed, this two parts are manufacturing in a machined process, this guarantee the superficial finished and high dimensional precision in the products.

Mold: Hollow form or matrix for giving a particular shape to something in a molten or plastic state.

Six Sigma: Is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement.

Scrap: Discarded waste material, especially metal suitable for processing.

CAD: Computer Aided Design, software used by architects, engineers, drafters, artists, and others to create precision drawings or technical illustrations.

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