Challenges and Applications of Cyber Physical Systems

Challenges and Applications of Cyber Physical Systems

Rachna Jain (JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida, India)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-6721-0.ch001
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Abstract

Cyber physical systems integrate actuators or sensors with networking technologies. Latest innovations in the area lead to cyber social systems or cyber physical social systems. Industry 4.0 amalgamates all major technologies including internet of things, big data, cloud computing, and smart systems under CPS. Cyber physical systems comprise of physical layer devices connected to the internet. It has vast applications in the areas like manufacturing, healthcare, energy, automation, robotics, smart building, meteorology, and transportation. Cyber and physical components interaction, training and adaptation ability, interoperability using IoT devices, information security using firewalls and cryptosystems, system robustness, and intervention of human inside and out of the loop are the major focusing areas in any CPS. In this chapter, application areas and challenges faced by cyber physical systems are discussed in detail.
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I. Introduction

Cyber Physical Systems interact computing and communication devices with constant interaction at the physical layer (Xu, Z et al., 2008). Sensors and actuators work in the feedback loop using human intervention so that their behavior could be changed as per user’s requirement (Ashibani and Mahmoud, 2017). Technical requirements of CPS system require large memory to store data generated from embedded systems. System dynamics and control algorithm governing functioning of any CPS system must consider computing complexity of the system. Quality control of any system may be governed using feedback loop in any system.

Other challenges of any CPS system include excessive information overflow in a collaborative network. This abundance of data result in increase of noise in any system which is present in form of pop up windows, spam folder, contextual advertising related to any information. Growth of IoT paradigm has led to energy enhanced communication between cyber and physical entities. Critical aspect is interaction of humans with the machines. Awareness of threats must be there while realizing any cyber physical system (Bhattacharya, R., 2013). Multiple level security check must be there at all the levels of stakeholders. Data transportation among different systems demand for better communication among devices. Tampering of physical devices for example mishandling of wearable body sensors may result in huge loss like losing information about critically ill patient. Figure 1 demonstrates the importance of digital transformation in industry 4.0.

Figure 1.

Digital Transformation in industry 4.0 (Source: Maskuriy et al., 2019)

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Ii. Layered Architecture Of Cps

Different layers such as physical layer, interface layer and business layer of CPS systems are explained as:

i) Physical Layer/Perception layer:-

Sensors and actuators help in sensing the data at the physical layer. These modern sensors gather information from the surroundings. Hardcore infrastructure is provided by the sensors, actuators and the computer servers.

ii) Integration Layer/Network layer:-

Sensors and actuators connect to wireless networks through 2G, 3G, 4G, Bluetooth or Zigbee networks. 6LoWPAN allows IPv6 packets to be sent over low power personal area networks. IPv6 is even helpful in smart grid which allows formation of mesh network to send the data for billing system.

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