Characterization of Elevated Tumor Markers in Diagnosis of HCC Using Data Mining Methods

Characterization of Elevated Tumor Markers in Diagnosis of HCC Using Data Mining Methods

Vyshali J. Gogi (Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering, India) and Vijayalakshmi M. N. (Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3479-3.ch058

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an abnormal condition of human liver which is diagnosed at a very advanced stage. The disease is liver disorder which can be predicted after series of clinical and laboratory and imaging studies. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most malignant tumors which is the major cause of death and requires to be treated at early stage. The prognosis of liver disease is the reflection of both tumor characteristics like tumor size, location and tumor biology along with the degree of underlying resection. Healthcare domain generates huge data which is very complex and vast. The data contains many hidden parameters and patterns which is useful in predicting the disease. Data mining helps in recognizing these hidden patterns and arriving at the diagnosis of the disease. In this chapter the authors are concentrating on HCC tumor makers. The aim of the study is to use data mining techniques to predict the presence of tumor markers and their contribution in HCC Progression.
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Background

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is an abnormal condition of human liver which is diagnosed at a very advanced stage. The disease is liver disorder which can be predicted after series of clinical and laboratory and imaging studies. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most malignant tumors which is the major cause of death and requires to be treated at early stage. Benign tumors do not lead to cancer but malignant tumors lead to cancer. The lab investigation accords to austerity of the disease in liver together with physiology of the condition. The laboratory studies incorporate persistence of electrolytes, Complete Blood Count, Liver Function Tests, International Normalized Ratio (INR), partial thromboplastic time (PTT) and AFP (Alpha-Feto Protein) tests. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered as one of the tumor markers of HCC. AFP is produced by tumors or by regenerating hepatocytes, but not all tumors produce AFP. The elevations in AFP level greater than 400ng /DL in proper clinical context and appropriate radiologic findings marks the diagnosis of HCC. Increased AFP along with proper imaging studies is considered diagnostic of HCC. The medical imaging techniques like USG (Ultrasonography), CT (Compute Tomography) scan, and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) creates an interior visualization of the body. Surgical resection or ablation cannot be planned with the anatomic detail obtained from ultrasonography. The lesions are not detected significantly. Although CT scan is highly accurate compared to ultrasonography, it may miss some of small lesions. MRI is an excellent method to characterize HCC. HCC demonstrates various features which is clearly differentiated in MRI scan. Patients with lesions larger than 1 to 2 cm are recommended for biopsy since they are predicted to be under risk of malignancy. The decision on resection, transplantation and ablative therapy is taken based on the biopsy result.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Specificity: If the test diagnoses the patient without disease as not having disease, then it is referred to as specificity.

Confusion Matrix: The performance of the classification model is given by confusion matrix in the form of table. The dataset is a test set whose true values are known.

AFP: Alpha feto protein (AFP) is one of the standard tumor markers in detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The test is done by drawing blood from the patient and measuring the AFP levels.

Malignant Tumors: Malignant tumors are unwanted mass of tissue, which is cancerous. It spreads, multiplies and gets worse damaging the organs.

Ultrasonography: The motion of the organs and structures in the body are captured briskly using ultrasound images. The growth of alien objects in the organs like breasts, thyroid gland, limbs and lymph nodes can be recognized using ultrasound images.

Sensitivity: If the test diagnoses the patient with disease as having the disease, then it is referred to as sensitivity.

CT Scan: Computed tomography (CT) scan is a type of imaging study of human body. Computers and rotating X-Ray machines provides comprehensive information regarding the bold vessels, bones in various parts of body and blood vessels.

MRI: The MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) creates a structure and cross- sectional image of the internal organs using a large magnet, radio waves and computer.

FNAC: A symptomatic method where a small chunk of tissue is sucked by inserting a needle into body and examined with the help of microscope is called FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology). FNAC is a diagnostic procedure where a needle is inserted into the body and a small amount of tissue is sucked for examination under a microscope. If any suspicious lump is found, or if any abnormality is detected in imaging tests, the FNAC is performed.

Screening: Early diagnosis of any disease is essential to avoid worst situations. Screening is a preventive measure to identify probable health problem without having any symptoms or sign of the disease.

LFT: Liver function test (LFT) is a bio-chemistry test which is done to determine the health of the liver by measuring various enzymes present in the blood.

Benign Tumors: A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue. Benign tumors are not cancerous and cannot spread. A benign tumor remains constant and do not grow, and they do not return after removing.

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