Children with Special Needs as a Virtual Community

Children with Special Needs as a Virtual Community

Tas Adam (Victoria University, Australia) and Arthur Tatnall (Victoria University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-100-3.ch502

Abstract

The term learning disability (LD) refers to any retardation, disorder, or delayed development in one or more of the processes of speech, language, reading, writing, arithmetic, or other school subjects resulting from a psychological handicap caused by a possible cerebral dysfunction and/or emotional or behavioural disturbances (Adam & Tatnall, 2002). It is not the result of mental retardation, sensory deprivation, or cultural and instructional factors (Kirk, 1962). Specific learning disabilities is a chronic condition of presumed neurological origin that selectively interferes with the development, integration, and/or demonstration of verbal and/or nonverbal abilities. Specific learning disability exists as a distinct handicapping condition and varies in its manifestations and degree of severity (Adam & Tatnall, 2003). Throughout life, the condition can affect self-esteem, education, vocation, socialisation, and/or daily living activities (ACLD, 1986, p. 15). Two definitions of LD are well supported: a legislative definition from the United States found in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1997) and the one proposed by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD, 1994), a consortium of representatives from organizations interested in LD.

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