Circular Economy Experience: A Russian Perspective

Circular Economy Experience: A Russian Perspective

Elena Viktorovna Burdenko (Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Russia) and Elena Bykasova (The Kosygin State University of Russia, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5116-5.ch009
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The chapter focuses on the historical aspect of economic development stages. It identifies agriculture-based, industrial, and post-industrial economies' characteristics. It is demonstrable that the problem of limited resources, the use of waste from consumption, and production has always existed. However, these problems were solved differently in different historical periods. The accumulated problems can be solved by the transition to a circular economy model. When studying the Russian experience in the transition to a circular economy model, the focus remains on Russian legislation. The example of Russian industrial enterprises shows the practical application of the circular economy principles. The research covers such enterprises as PJSC NK ROSNEFT (which includes PJSC ANK Bashneft, Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim, JSC Novokuibyshevsky Oil Refinery, and JSC Rospan International), PJSC TATNEFT, PJSC MMC Norilsk Nickel, PJSC Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. The presentation is on strategies, policies, and programs aimed at ensuring industrial safety, labor protections, and the environment.
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Any production as consumption is associated with the use of resources and has an impact on the environment. K. Boulding tried reviewing the problem of a more efficient use of natural resources from the theoretical point of view, proposing circular economy. In the 70s of the twentieth century, this idea was supported by European countries. In 1972, Meadows et al. in their work The Limits to Growth, developed a model of world development provided that the existing population growth rates, industrial and agricultural production, irrational use of non-renewable natural resources, and environmental pollution stayed the same. The conclusions were sad: mankind was confidently heading for disaster, material growth cannot continue indefinitely on a physically finite planet. In further studies conducted in 1992 (20 years later) and 2002 (30 years later), these findings were confirmed with a slight adjustment of individual indicators.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Light Industry: Includes a group of industries, such as textile, garment, knitting, footwear, fur, leather, and others.

Slag Dump: A place for storing slag.

Sludge: Dust and fine particles precipitated during ore washing, waste products.

Manufacturing Industry: A complex of industrial enterprises engaged in the processing and recycling of agricultural and industrial raw materials that are used to make new products. Manufacturing industry includes food, light, chemical, pharmaceutical industries, mechanical engineering, woodworking, pulp and paper, and others.

Agriculture-Based Economy: The stage of the country’s economic development when production is mainly carried out in agriculture.

Post-Industrial Economy: A transitional stage of the country's economic development from an industrial economy to a more advanced form.

Mining Industry: A complex of industrial enterprises engaged in the extraction and primary processing of minerals from the Earth's interior. The mining industry includes enterprises that extract oil, gas, coal, metals, etc.

Slag: A by-product that is formed in metallurgy during metal smelting. It is a frozen mass of various impurities and ash. Refers to the waste of metallurgical production.

Non-Woven Material: Obtained without the use of weaving methods by combining fibers and threads with mechanical or physico-chemical methods. One of the oldest types of non-woven materials is felt, batting. Modern non-woven materials are polyester batting, spunbond, spunlace, isosoft, thinsulate.

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