Composition of Leachate

Composition of Leachate

Shuokr Qarani Aziz (Salahaddin University – Erbil, Iraq) and Amin Mojiri (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9610-5.ch007
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Solid waste is an important environmental problem in both developing and developed countries. Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is one of the main modern environmental issues in municipal areas because of both its huge amount and variety of constituents. Information on characteristics of MSW is important for the formulation of new waste management policy. Landfill leachate is defined as an aqueous effluent produced when water percolates through the waste in a landfill. The nature of landfill leachate depends on the type of MSW being dumped, landfill age, moisture content, seasonal weather variations, site hydrology, the stage of decomposition in the landfill and pH. Produced leachate could contain large amounts of contaminants measured as COD, BOD5, NH3–N, heavy metals, phenols, phosphorus etc. Obviously, as landfill age increases, the biodegradable fraction of organic pollutants in leachate decrease as an outcome of the anaerobic decomposition occurring in landfill site. Thus, mature or stabilized leachate contains much more refractory organics than young leachate.
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Municpal Solid Waste Management (Mswm)

In 2006, the estimated total volume of MSW generated internationally reached 2.02 billion tons, indicating a 7% annual rise since 2003. Between 2007 and 2011, the rise in universal generation of urban waste was estimated at 37.3%, equivalent to an increase of approximately 8% per year (UNEP, 2009). Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important aspect of urban planning and development. MSWM is considered as a public service, providing citizens with a scheme of disposing of their waste in an economically and environmentally friendly method (Beigl et al., 2008). It is one of the main concerns in most cities of the developing countries due to rapid modernization and urbanization that consequently lead to increased rate of MSW production and disposal (Manaf et al., 2009 and Zhang et al., 2010). Additionally, Al-Khatib et al. (2010) stated that rapidly growing population, quick economic growth and improved community living standards have resulted in increased generation rate of MSW, the management of which is a great challenge for concerned authorities. MSWM is a significant feature of environmental hygiene in addition to planning, administration, organization, financial and legal aspects of different activities associated with generation, collection, transportation, and disposal processes (Figure 1). In other words, MSWM in an environmentally friendly way that should adopt principles of aesthetics, economy, conservation and energy (Hui et al., 2006 andPattnaik& Reddy, 2010).

Figure 1.

Sketch for integrated solid waste management: (a) Interactive, and (b) Hierarchical (Source: Nemerow et al., 2009)

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