Data-Driven and Practice-Based Evidence: Design and Development of Efficient and Effective Clinical Decision Support System

Data-Driven and Practice-Based Evidence: Design and Development of Efficient and Effective Clinical Decision Support System

Hamzah Osop (Queensland University of Technology, Australia) and Tony Sahama (Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9432-3.ch014
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Abstract

Decision making is such an integral aspect in health care routine that the ability to make the right decisions at crucial moments can lead to patient health improvements. Evidence-based practice, the paradigm used to make those informed decisions, relies on the use of current best evidence from systematic research such as randomized controlled trials. Limitations of the outcomes from RCT, such as “quantity” and “quality” of evidence generated, has lowered healthcare professionals' confidence in using EBP. An alternate paradigm of Practice-Based Evidence has evolved with the key being evidence drawn from practice settings. Through the use of health information technology, electronic health records capture relevant clinical practice “evidence”. A data-driven approach is proposed to capitalize on the benefits of EHR. The issues of data privacy, security and integrity are diminished by an information accountability concept. Data warehouse architecture completes the data-driven approach by integrating health data from multi-source systems, unique within the healthcare environment.
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Background

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) continues to play a major role in the practice of clinical medicine. The key to EBP is in assisting healthcare professionals, such as doctors and clinicians make well-informed clinical decisions. According to Greenhalgh, Howick, and Maskrey (2014), EBP demands the use of evidence from excellent randomized controlled trials and observational studies, combined with clinical expertise and applied based on individual patient requirements has made clinical practice “more scientific and empirically grounded” allowing it to be safer, more consistent and more cost effective. The ability to deliver evidence-based practice on the other hand, ensures that care is catered to individual patient and that quality of healthcare is upheld today as well as for the future, and without it, healthcare delivery could probably cause serious harm to patients or them losing out on the opportunity to benefit from it (Dawes et al., 2005).

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