Design of a Triple Helix Strategy for Developing Nations Based on E-Government and Entrepreneurship: An Application to Ecuador

Design of a Triple Helix Strategy for Developing Nations Based on E-Government and Entrepreneurship: An Application to Ecuador

José Manuel Saiz Alvarez, Rubén González Crespo
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3691-0.ch007
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The arrival of Rafael Correa in Ecuador is leading to a structural transformation of the Ecuadorian economy and society with the arrival of e-Government and the introduction of the digital economy in the country. The objective of this chapter is to design a strategy based on entrepreneurship, e-Government, and higher education for creating a digital society in Ecuador (the triple helix strategy). To achieve it, the authors analyse the Ecuadorian's National Plan for Good Living 2013-2017 linked to higher education reforms and the influence of the European-based e-Government policies in Ecuador. The authors finish with some perspectives and the foreseeable impact of a digital society in this developing nation.
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Higher Education, R&D And Entrepreneurship In The National Plan For Good Living, 2013-2017

Education reform in Ecuador by the Correa government began in 2009 through the General Unified High School where technical subjects are promoted and those related to business administration. As a result, it has been introducing new technologies in education, also including university education, so the Correa’s government has closed in April 2012 the fourteen universities with lower educational and research quality in the country.

To achieve greater quality in higher education, the government has increased the amount spent on education up to 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and it has introduced free education in primary education, to prevent illiteracy, along with courses on health and nutrition for the most economically disadvantaged population. All this combined with the training of teachers, and the increase of investment in R&D and innovation, will permit Ecuador to digitalize its economy.

It is intended in the same way to give a response to the need to eliminate the digital gap and to help to digital literacy in all population. The gap in technological development among those nations more visionary and the rest has begun to be consolidated, although this digitalization process goes very slowly but inexorably (Cáceres, 2004). Internet is a technological infrastructure for short life; however, the speed of its development in some nations has led to extend its application beyond the computers and spaces associated with them. This solution will help increasing the use of the technologies associated with Internet.

In fact, enhancing the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the education and training systems in Ecuador will contribute to foster economic growth while reducing social differences in terms of poverty, education, and technical skills development in the nation. Increasing use of advanced digital services by the public will force regional, local and national authorities to develop the technological capabilities of the ICT sector, facilitating the development of an effective e-Government, joining a content service capability, service delivery capability and on-demand capability (Hu, Lin & Pan, 2013) to permit Ecuador to follow the path towards offering better services to their citizens.

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