Eco-Friendly Construction

Eco-Friendly Construction

Meghmala S. Waghmode (Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, India), Aparna B. Gunjal (Asian Agri Food Consultancy Services, India), Namdeo N. Bhujbal (Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, India), Neha N. Patil (Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, India) and Neelu N. Nawani (Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6995-4.ch004


Increase in urbanization leads to more construction of houses, dams, and streets. Reduction of the global warming effects can be carried out by recycling of construction material and searching for eco-friendly construction material. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced with the help of construction material which requires less energy for their production. The concept of eco-friendly construction is based on biomimetic (i.e., finding natural material with potential of endurance and self-cleaning properties). Construction materials like Portland cement and concrete can be replaced by eco-friendly biocement and bioconcrete. Production of biocement and bioconcrete can be done by using plants, algae, and bacteria. Use of less cement in concrete leads to less pollution. Concrete is the mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water. By addition of pozzolan in concrete, the requirement of cement will be reduced. In the current review, major emphasis is given to eco-friendly construction material.
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Constructions are increasing due to urbanization and increase in civil standards. Construction materials are responsible for emissions of green house gases and thus leads to global warming. To avoid environmental issues, it is recommended to go for green building where construction material will be of biological origin. Considering the 5% CO2 emission generated by cement industry, it is primary requisite to replace cement with biocement (Worrell, Price, Martin, Hendriks, & Meida, 2001). Blend of biosilica is biocement. Sand (SiO2), clay (SiO2,Al2O3, and Fe2O3), limestone or chalk (CaCO3), iron ore (Fe2O3) are used for cement production. Plants or its material enriched with silica content will be the suitable candidate for biocement production. In the case of bacteria, ureolytic bacteria are mainly focused for precipitation of CaCO3. Green building index concept is started in some countries like Malaysia. Durability of structures exposed to harsh environmental structures could not be fulfilled by ordinary Portland cement (Achal, Mukherjee, Basu, & Reddy, 2009). Irreversible damage is caused by physical and chemical reactions of gases and /or liquids (Claisse, Elsayad, & Shaaban, 1997). To reduce environmental impact of construction industry, green building will be better choice (Chatterjee, 2009). Cement strength can be maintained by using materials which is having pozzolanic reaction. Selection of pozzolan depends on its reactivity, more cementitious strength is attributed with high reactivity. Any siliceous or aluminous material which can react with lime forming cementitious hydration products possessing cementitious properties. Both natural (calcined clay, calcined shale, and metakaolin) and artificial pozzolan (calcined clay, calcined shale, and metakaolin) can be used with Portland or blended cement which by hydraulic or pozzolanic activity, contribute to hardened cement. The main objectives of this review are viz., impact of construction on environment; replacement of construction materials; microorganisms in bioinspired construction and benefits of biotechconcrete.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Pollution: The presence of contaminants in the environment which has adverse effects.

Remediation: Cleanup or removing hazardous material (organic and inorganic) from the environment.

Oligotrophic: Microorganism which is able to grow in environment which has low level of the nutrients.

Eco-Friendly: Safe to the environment.

Sustainable: Steady state without exhausting natural resources and without causing any damage.

Global Warming: Rise in the temperature of the earth’s surface.

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