Effective Management of Agro-Industrial Residues as Composting in Mushroom Industry and Utilization of Spent Mushroom Substrate for Bioremediation

Effective Management of Agro-Industrial Residues as Composting in Mushroom Industry and Utilization of Spent Mushroom Substrate for Bioremediation

Rajender Singh (Directorate of Mushroom Research (ICAR) Solan, India) and Mamta Chauhan (Jaypee University of Information and Technology, India)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9734-8.ch008
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Different types of edible mushrooms like Agaricus, bisporus, A. bitoriqus, Pleurotus spp., Volvariella volvacea, Lentinula edodes, Calocybe indica, Flamullina, Ganoderma lucidum etc. are cultivated in industrial scale. Majority of edible fungi secretes extracellular Ligninocellulolytic enzymes like Laccase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, cellulase etc. for effective conversion of ligninocellulolytic substrate to compositing form which led to fruiting of mushrooms. Consequently, an adequate disposal method is needed for the high quantities of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) generated in this agro-food industrial activity. On the other side, textile industry among the largest water consuming industries in the world and approximately, 10,000 different dyes and pigments are used at industrial scale. It is estimated that nearly 40% of the total dyes used in the dyeing process may find their way in wastewater. So, there is an attempt to utilize the ligninolytic enzymes rich SMS of different mushroom for efficiently biodegradation of textile wastewater & polyaromatic pollutants.
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1. Introduction

Mushroom cultivation is a common practice all over the world and is a major income source in China and other developing countries which also suffer from serious pollution. Total edible species of mushrooms are approximately 2000 and total edible species under cultivation are nearly 20 at commercial level. World mushrooms production annually is greater than 25 million ton (Li, 2012). Total annual mushroom production in India is 1, 20, 000 tons (DMR, 2014). Annually, world production of major lignocellulolytic biomass waste is around 1088.258 million tons (FAO). Mushroom cultivation offers a highly efficient method capable of not only biodegradation and bioremediation of agro-industrial waste but also biotransformation into proteinaceous food that can sustain food security in the developing countries (Ingale & Ramteke 2010; Narain et al. 2011; Philippoussis & Diamantopoulou 2011; Kulshreshtha et al. 2010). Many basidiomycetes fungi are edible mushrooms whose industrial production generates significant amount of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) with residual high levels of lignin-degrading extracellular enzymatic activities. Annual spent mushroom substrate required to be disposed of in India is around 6,00,000 tons (Table 1) . Spent mushroom substrate (SMS), has recently gained importance because of its unique physical, chemical and biological properties. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced (Williams et al., 2001). Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is the substrate left over after mushroom harvesting. The rapid growth in mushroom production worldwide has resulted in large quantities of SMS (about 13.6 million tons per year) (Williams et al., 2001; Uzun, 2004). These massive amounts of waste can cause environmental problems, which has led to increased research to develop technologies for treating these type of waste substrate. SMS mainly contains lignocellulosic materials, such as sawdust, wheat straw, paddy straw, wheat bran, chicken manure and cotton seed hulls, which have been decomposed and permeated by mycelium.

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