Hasan Vergil (İstanbul University, Turkey) and Fuat Sekmen (Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University, Kyrgyzstan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch001
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Egypt is one of the most important countries in the Middle East. It has considerable influence in Africa and Middle East due relatively to its large population, a strategic geographical position, military strength and diplomatic expertise. It has also played an important role in the resolution of Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It pioneered in establishing relations with Israel among the Arab countries. However, from the economical point of view, Egypt has long-standing structural deficits in trade balances and economic openness of Egypt has started to decrease in the last decade. Even though it endeavors to improve its conditions in education, economy and international relations, political instability after 2011 Arab Spring negatively affected Egypt's economy and political instability coupled with fear of terror-reduced revenues from tourism sector starting 2012. Therefore, Egypt should avoid any possibility of political instability to maintain long-term economic growth and should create an economic environment, which is more friendly to business.
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Population And Demographic Structure

Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East. After Nigeria and Ethiopia, Egypt is the third-most populous on the African continent. In 2016, the population of Republic of Egypt is estimated to be 93, 354,492. In 2016, the population has changed with a growth rate of 2.05 percent. This means that in 2016, population has increased by 1,875,490. The median age in Egypt in 2016 is 24.8 years. This means that the population is relatively young when it is compared with world median age. All world median age is almost 29.2 years. Fertility rate is not less than 5 percent during the 1990’s in Egypt. In 2000, fertility rate is above 3 percent, but in 2010, fertility rate is 2.98 percent. We know that world population is more than 7 billion, thus Egypt population is equivalent to 1.25 percent of world population. The total land area of Egypt is 995, 560 km2 and the population density is 94 per km2. In 2016, the urban population is almost 37,175,000. This means that 39.9% of the population is urban in Egypt (Egypt Population (LIVE). (n. d.).

In 2005, the population of Egypt was 76,117,421 and GDP (with Purchasing Power Parity) was 295.2 billion dollars. Military expenditure / GDP were 3.6%, oil production was 816,900 bbl/day, oil consumption was 562,000 bbl/day, exports were $8.759 billion, and imports were $14.75 billion. In 2010, the population of Egypt became raised to 82, 040,994. Thus, in five years, the population increased by almost six billion. In 2015, the population reached to 91,508,084, meaning that since 2010 the population of Egypt increased almost eight billion. We can say that Egypt’s population still grows each year by 1.5 billion people. This means that in each three years, Egypt’s population increases as much as the population of Kuwait.

As stated above, Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and after Nigeria and Ethiopia, Egypt is the third-most populous on the African continent, with about 94 million population. Egypt’s population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity. With medical advances and increasing productivity, total life expectancy (both sexes) at birth for Egypt is almost 72.7. According to Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations, life expectation for male is 70.82, and it is 75.4 for female. Total fertility rate is 2.87 children born/woman. Infant mortality rate is 22.41 deaths / 1,000 live births. Infant mortality rate is 23.9 for male, and 20.84 for female. Similar to Turkey in which mother’s mean age at first birth is 22.3, mothers give birth to their first child in their age of 22.9 as an average in Egypt (CIA, n.a.). The average mother’s mean age at first birth in Egypt as well as in Turkey is lower than mother’s mean age at first birth in developed countries. For example, it is 25.6 (2011 estimates) in the USA, 29.2 (2012 estimates) in Germany and 30.3 (2012 estimates) in Japan. This is one of the reasons of unfavorable conditions for children in developing countries.

Recent growth theories accept that there is a positive correlation between education (human capital) and economic growth. Thus, it will be useful if we mention about information about literacy in Egypt. According to recent estimate, 46 910 467 persons or 75.34% of adult population (aged 15 years and above) in Egypt are able to read and write and 15 357 963 adults are illiterate. Literacy rate for adult male population 83.24%, this corresponds to 26 139 246 adult male. On the other hand, the number of 5 261 888 male adult is illiterate. Literacy rate for adult female population is 67.29% (20 771 221 persons), but 10 096 075 adult female persons are illiterate (Countrymeters, n.d.).

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