Electro-Impulse Irreversible Plant Tissue Damage as Highly Efficient Agricultural Technology

Electro-Impulse Irreversible Plant Tissue Damage as Highly Efficient Agricultural Technology

Igor Viktorovich Yudaev (Don State Agrarian University, Russia), Yuliia Daus (Don State Agrarian University, Russia), Ruslan Kokurin (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Petr Victorovich Prokofyev (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Varvara Gamaga (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Russia) and Nikola Armenyanov (Ruse University, Bulgaria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7573-3.ch015

Abstract

The object of research in the chapter is the plant tissue of weeds, fruits, vegetables, melons, etc. The purpose of the presented research is to study the process of electro-impulsive irreversible damage of plant tissue as the basis for energy saving, efficient electro-technologies with minimal negative effects of chemical components on the environment and food products. The chapter presents the results of experiments carried out by the team of researchers that allowed it to determine the technological indices of the irreversible electro-impulse damage of plant tissue (weeds, fruits, vegetables, melons, etc.), which is the basis for developing the technology of electro-impulse destruction of weeds, electro-impulse plasmolysis of fruits and melons cultures. This research was conducted in the southern region of the country and combined the efforts of several scientific groups of researchers.
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Main Focus Of The Chapter

All these mentioned applications of high-voltage electro-impulse actuations are based on the functional failure effect of plant tissues cell structures membrane shells, which is achieved due to their irreversible damage.

Therefore, the purpose of the research is the investigation of the actuation mechanism of electrical high voltage pulses on whole plants tissue, raw materials or products and also engineering assessment examination of caring process issues and explaining their subject matters.

Key Terms in this Chapter

High-Voltage Electroimpulse Action: Effect of the electrophysical nature on the processed material, which is carried out by means of successively generated high-tension voltage pulses (at given frequency), for example, in the discharge circuit of the impulse voltage generator.

Electric Field Strength: Is a quantitative expression of the intensity of an electric field at a particular location. A field strength of 1 V/m represents a potential difference of one volt between points separated by one meter.

Electrotechnology in Agriculture: Complex of methods and techniques of electrophysical influence on technological processes in order to obtain agricultural products of specified properties with a minimum of labor and energy costs, as well as to create comfortable conditions and stimulate the development of living organisms for increasing quantity and quality of agricultural products without expanding the acreage, livestock and poultry, as well as increasing the shelf life of finished products and protecting it from pests and diseases.

Irreversible Damage to Plant Tissue: An irreversible damage to plant tissue cells, leading to a large degree and persistent disturbances of intracellular homeostasis, which cannot be eliminated even by the maximum activation of protective-compensatory-adaptive mechanisms in still viable intracellular and extracellular structures, and eventually leading to cells and the plant tissue itself death.

Reversible Damage to Plant Tissue: A short-term disruption of the intracellular homeostasis of the cells that make up plant tissue, which is eliminated by activating intra- and extracellular protective-compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, thereby facilitating the tissue cells vital activity restoration.

Damaging Degree: Determined as plant tissue resistance ratio before and after the electric processing, calculated at frequency 10 kHz.

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