An Empirical Evaluation of the Effects of Gender Differences and Self-efficacy in the Adoption of E-banking in Nigeria: A Modified Technology Acceptance Model

An Empirical Evaluation of the Effects of Gender Differences and Self-efficacy in the Adoption of E-banking in Nigeria: A Modified Technology Acceptance Model

Charles K. Ayo (Covenant University, Nigeria), Princely Ifinedo (Cape Breton University, Canada), Uyinomen O. Ekong (University of Uyo, Nigeria) and Aderonke Oni (Covenant University, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1637-0.ch010
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Abstract

The issues of gender disparity in the usage of information technology (IT), as well as self-efficacy, have received considerable interest and attention among researchers in recent times. Prior research has identified that gender differences and self-efficiency affect the attitude towards adoption and use of technology. In general, females are believed to be disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts with respect to IT usage and acceptance. The reasoning is that males are mostly more exposed to technology and tend to have more proficiency with such tools. Very little information exists in the extant literature regarding perceptions in developing parts of the world, including Africa. In this chapter, an empirical evaluation of the issues in the context of e-banking will be made in Lagos (Nigeria) and its environs. An extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) will be used as a conceptual framework to guide the discourse. Data analysis was done on SPSS 15.0. The study’s results showed that gender differences moderated the acceptance of e-banking of users in the research context. Namely, computer self efficacy and perceived ease of use were of concerns to females, but less so for their male counterparts. Also, perceived usefulness of e-banking is discovered to be the most influencing factor for male users. The study’s implications for research and practice are discussed in the chapter.
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Introduction

The advent of electronic banking (e-banking) in Nigeria in the past few decades have greatly transformed the way banking activities are carried out and customers are reaping the benefits of such platforms (Chiemeke et al., 2006; Emordi, 2007; Adesina et al., 2008; Agbada, 2008). Some of the derived benefits to the customers in Nigeria include flexibility and convenience (Akpan, 2008; Gholami et al., 2010). The traditional system of banking in Nigeria is characterized with inconveniences that make banking a tedious task to customers (Ezeoha, 2005; Emordi, 2007; Akpan, 2008). It can be argued that banking is prone to errors and often times customers do spend long times in queues at banking halls in countries such as Nigeria (Emordi, 2007).

The term e-banking has been interchangeably used with online banking, internet banking and PC banking (Xu et al, 2006). However, for the purpose of this study, we will use the term e-banking to refer to all of the aforementioned examples. Pikkarainen et al. (2004) defined online banking as an Internet portal, through which customers can use different kinds of services ranging from bill payments to engraining in online investments. Here in this chapter, e-banking is defined as banking services such as transfer of funds, payment of bills, withdrawal, deposits, access to account information that are carried out on a bank’s website through a personal computer (PC) connected to the Internet, WAP enabled mobile network, Automated Teller Machines Networks, automated telephone, web TV, SMS/FAX messaging and so forth. Without a doubt, the major goal of any large or small bank is to grow the number of their valuable customers through retention; in general, banks try to increase their offerings, product channels, and services (Xu et al, 2006).

Prior investigation of consumers’ adoption of e-banking in Nigeria revealed that banks customers, who are active users of e-banking system tend to use it because of the convenience, ease of use, and the efficiency associated with the e-banking platforms (Akpan, 2008; Adesina et al., 2008; Gholami et al., 2010). The impact of e-banking in Nigeria banking system is evident in the increased speed; shorten processing periods, improved flexibility of business transactions and reduction in costs associated with having personnel serve customers physically (Chiemeke et al., 2006; Emordi, 2007; Adesina et al. 2008; Gholami et al., 2010). In brief, e-banking is an important platform for the country’s economic development (Chiemeke et al., 2006; Emordi, 2007; Akpan, 2008).

Given the benefits of such a platform to users, it is important to investigate factors that influence the acceptance of e-banking platforms in Nigeria. Prior research has identified that gender differences and self-efficiency affect the attitude towards adoption and use of technology, in general. In short, females are believed to be disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts with respect to using IT innovations and applications. The reasoning is that males are mostly more exposed to technology and tend to have more proficiency with such tools (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000; Van Slyke et al., 2002; Ilie et al., 2005). Similarly, the literature suggests that self-efficacy has an effect on IT usage (Bandura, 1982; Compeau & Higgins, 1995).

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