Enhancing Global Citizenship Through TVET in Zimbabwe: A Systematic Review

Enhancing Global Citizenship Through TVET in Zimbabwe: A Systematic Review

Tawanda Chinengundu, Jerald Hondonga
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9542-8.ch010
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Several nations include technical and vocational education and training curricula in general education as a vehicle to promote economic and human capital development, eradicate poverty, unemployment, and inequality. This chapter analyzed TVET provision in Zimbabwe and its role in enhancing global citizenship among students through literature study of education evaluation reports, policy documents, and current research papers. Literature study indicated that the current TVET in Zimbabwe is blamed for a local learner skills-job mismatch and lack of specific emphasis on addressing global citizenship. The chapter argues that TVET in Zimbabwe should improve on enhancing global citizenship education for global labor participation of the graduates. More should be done to equip students with responsive skills compatible with modern technologies embracing the fourth industrial revolution. TVET curricula need to inculcate entrepreneurial and soft skills to produce socially relevant graduates with good citizenry ethos.
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Introduction And Background

The role of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) globally is acknowledged for preparing skilled labour needed to transform industry performance, productivity, and economic prosperity of countries (Mbongwe, 2018). It can be acknowledged that technological developments are making it difficult to forecast the emergence of new professions and associated skills (UNESCO, 2015). TVET institutions need to ensure that the education and skills they offer meet the expectations of learners and those of employers, both today and for the future (Maunganidze et al., 2016; Mbongwe, 2018). The roles of TVET in Zimbabwe are reflected in national development agendas, poverty eradication and education reform strategies. One of the overarching TVET aims in the country is to enhance global citizenship education as envisaged in Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4). Target 4.7 of SDG 4 aims, “To ensure that all learners are provided with the knowledge and skills to promote sustainable development, sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.” Hence this systematic review investigated the role of TVET in enhancing global citizenship with internationally recognised skills for the future workforce in Zimbabwe.

Vocational disciplines are also key subject areas where life skills and citizenship education needs to be embedded in order to increase access to these disciplines and enhance their relevance (Bahl & Dietzen, 2019; Geresu, 2017). Good quality demand-driven Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) (based on life skills and citizenship education) is potentially one of the most important pathways for providing young people who are responsible, with skills that enhance employability yet alone with a great sense of loyalty (Maunganidze, Faimau, & Tapera, 2016).

Deliberations at the World Economic Forum (2016) suggested that probably 65% of today's children will take up jobs that do not currently exist due to the fast technology changes in the workplaces. The changes are inevitable and permeating into all work situations and jobs. In turn, learners must be prepared with adaptive competencies needed in a fast-evolving technological work environment (Banerji et al., 2014). Learners must be empowered with problem solving and analytical skills to improve the way things are currently done and how they are likely to change in future. It is against this background that this chapter systematically reviews the role of TVET in developing human capital with skills needed for the future of work in Zimbabwe.

Despite Zimbabwe’s impressive rapid growth in education after independence in 1980, only five percent (5%) of school leavers were getting jobs annually in the formal labour market by 1990 (Coltart, 2012, p.8). The blame for such low school-leavers’ employment rate is mainly on the relevance of skills learners were getting from the school system and those required by the local job market, and inadequate post-school opportunities in the job market (Zimbabwe, 2008; Zimbabwe, 2018). The country needs people with a sense of responsibility and innovative skills to turn around the fortunes of the country even in the self-employment sector other than to depend on employment.

Key Terms in this Chapter

4th Industrial Revolution (4IR): It is the fusion of advances in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, the Internet of Things (IoT), genetic engineering, quantum computing, and many more.

Globalisation: An era characterised by intense interconnectivity and interdependence in almost all spheres of life.

Citizenship Education: It is education that gives people the knowledge and skills to understand, challenge and engage with democratic society including politics, the media, civil society, the economy, and the law. The education promotes citizens who are willing and able to take responsibility for themselves and their communities and contribute to the political process.

Inequality: Refers to the phenomenon of unequal and/or unjust distribution of resources and opportunities among members of a given society.

Curriculum: Curriculum is viewed as the summation of all in-tended and unintended teaching and learning experiences in an educational context (Kelly, 2004).

TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training): It is education and training which involves, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills relating to occupations in various sectors of economic life and social life, comprises formal, non-formal and informal learning.

Employability Skills: These are transferable skills needed by an individual to make them employable such as, communication, problem-solving, decision making and teamwork.

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