Entrepreneurship Approach to Higher Education Policy Aspects

Entrepreneurship Approach to Higher Education Policy Aspects

Mukund Deshpande (University of Pune, India)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 39
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8468-3.ch078
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Abstract

To disseminate higher education and provide new alternatives to traditional models, an entrepreneurial approach to university education is desirable. Researchers have pleaded that learning and teaching in higher education over the last two decades has provided a variety of concepts, methods, and findings that are of both theoretical interest and practical relevance. Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key to economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. The intent of this chapter is to educate the institutions, students, learners, and the public in general about the path to higher education that is intended in today's globalization scenario to meet with diverse needs of profession, business, and government. In short, the chapter highlights and elaborates the grouping of policies used to achieve higher education leading to elevated standard in the society. This chapter provides material to institutions, universities, and researchers to understand better the growing importance of the MENA region in today's global economy that would facilitate acquiring knowledge for developing the relatively understudied MENA region. This province is looking for prospects in developing higher education owing to its budding significance in the world economy. In particular, the chapter explores how global higher education and technological advancements are influencing the progress and prosperity of this region.
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Introduction

Globalization has influenced all the countries in the world and MENA region is not an exception since it is as well experiencing transition owing to its dissemination effects. World Economic Forum in December 2010 made a wide set of recommendations for the development of this region that includes higher education as a prime condition. Integrating innovation and entrepreneurial thinking into the education process is a prerequisite to build and foster the 21st century skills, aptitudes, attitudes and entrepreneurial mindsets that the youth of the region need to acquire to succeed and grow opportunity moving forward. Some countries have already commenced developing their entrepreneurial ecosystems but this tends to focus on the higher education level and, as yet, only a handful of countries in the region are actively introducing national policies related to the implementation of entrepreneurial learning in their national education curricula. Popular demands for greater freedoms are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa Region, and political reforms are, as a result, further strengthened through empowered and educated citizens that can make informed choices in free and fair elections, safeguarded by an independent and a vibrant civil society. UNESCO supports to create more open, pluralistic and knowledge-based societies. It has its offices in Cairo, Rabat, Beirut, Doha and Amman and new project antenna offices in Tunis and Tripoli which are set to develop this province and its actions are guided by the strategic objectives which include improving the quality of education as also enhancing freedom of expression and access to information. The other objectives of this region cover protecting and preserving cultural heritage; generating skills and economic prospects whilst some other are fostering democratic societies and supporting social transformation processes. The province has considerably increased access to and investment in education, but quality of education services needs to be better attended. Egypt, Tunisia and Libya are transitioning from restrictive media freedom toward a professional and independent media environment that can enable freedom of expression, pluralism and independence of media. The region’s cultural heritage includes seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Egypt, eight in Tunisia and five in Libya. Cultural heritage is a source of national pride and also of income generation, with cultural tourism being one of the most important sectors of the economy. Cultural Heritage remains endangered by the risk of conflict or volatile security. This province has among the world’s highest youth unemployment rates, with one in four young people out of work. UNESCO’s activities promote tolerance, good governance and rule of law; strengthening human rights and supporting civil society.

Global Investments in the Region

Global investments, from diverse sources, have started commencing in the MENA region for its development plans. Some organizations have already entered into the development accord. In 2013, UNESCO signed plan of operation with the Palestine to support university students under Saudi funded project. The Japanese Government, in the year 2012, granted about five million dollars to support UNESCO’s post conflict and disaster response in Africa and Middle East. In 2011, Irina Bokova urged protection of Cairo’s cultural sites after fire at the Institute of Egypt while in 2011, UNESCO came up to resume cooperation with Libya. Financiers have, in addition, shown deep interest in investing in the renewable energy projects which are the opportunities currently on hand and to remove blockages to potential investment in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. This has been summarized in two round-table talks, in late 2010, and 2011 for bringing together mainstream financiers, both from London and the region itself. Financiers from diverse range of capacity include international project finance banks, regional or global heads of renewable energy, investment banks, as well as specialized private equity, and a more limited number of equity and banking institutions based in the Gulf region, all with an active interest in renewable energy.

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