Evaluation of the Instructors' Opinions about the Current State of Turkey in the Context of Millennium Development Goals

Evaluation of the Instructors' Opinions about the Current State of Turkey in the Context of Millennium Development Goals

Selçuk Turan (Çaycuma Trade Vocational High School, Turkey), Ahmet Yirmibeş (Çaycuma Anatolian High School, Turkey) and Nedim Özdemir (Altındağ Guidance and Research Center, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 8
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6070-0.ch018
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Abstract

This chapter aims to reveal Turkey's current situation regarding the Millennium Development Goals as one of the signatory countries of declaration through the opinions of the instructors studying in the field of educational administration. A qualitative research method has been used. For this purpose, a study group was constituted including eight lecturers who are specialists in the field of Educational Administration working at a university in the city of Zonguldak. Accordingly, a study group was also included in the study consisting lecturers from Hacettepe University and Gazi University. A semi-structured interview form was prepared as a tool of collecting data and it was applied to participants in May 2013. The data were recorded both verbally and in writing. Content analysis method (which is used to resolve the qualitative research) was used to analyse the data.
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Introduction

If you look at the poorest regions of the world today, you can see that basic needs-services such as health, housing and security and education which are the core concepts of development, progress, productivity and economic growth are neglected. Whereas, that education is the central element of the global strategy at the point of eliminating poverty in other words inequality is a known fact. (Clarke & Fenny, 2007, p.7). While the rise in poverty restricts the access to education, the decline in the level of education increases the poverty. Poor people often cannot have adequate educational facilities and individuals who cannot get adequate levels of education would be doomed to pursue a life of mostly poor. (Van der Berg, 2008).

Poverty does not only mean having lack of material resources, it also means having lack of the ability of active presence in the community. According to Lister (2004), poverty is associated with the right to be economically independent in the minimum level. The equality rhetoric began with American Declaration of Independence and the French Revolution (Tural, 2012) triggered Universal Human Rights Declaration (1948) which is a global attempt to fight against poverty and inequality. People’s leading a dignified life began to be seen as a fundamental right. Especially industrialization revolution has revealed rich nations, poorer population has exploited the poor in the nation. When we come to the last quarter of the twentieth century, the gap between poor countries and rich countries has increased relatively. On one side, countries living in prosperity and consuming world resources disproportionately, on the other side communities having difficulties to meet their basic needs such as food and beverage housing and healthcare have arisen.

According to World Bank 2000/2001 progress report, more than half of the population living below $ 1 a day throughout the world in the 1980s and 90s live in in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where are the poorest regions in the world still today.

As mentioned before, Universal Declaration of Human Rights revealed that people should have equal opportunities. But nearly 50 years passed over the declaration and poverty and inequality have gained more importance than ever. At least, when it comes to 90s, enrolment rate in primary education in developed countries is close to full rate. In Africa, it was not much more than 50%. (UNESCO, 2011). And finally first in 1990 and later in 2000 Framework for World Conference on Education for All (EFA) drew attention to neglected education because of poverty.

In 2000, 189 countries agreed on a declaration which is called Millennium Development Goals led by United Nations in New York. The declaration established eight Millennium Development Goals and time bound-concrete targets. 2015 is the deadline for these goals. In this study two of these eight goals (2nd and 3rd) which are directly related to education will be evaluated with regards to Turkey as one of the signatory countries of the Millennium Development Goals. In this context, the concrete indicators determined for these two substances will be the main focus of the study as developments related to the Millennium Development Goals are monitored through these concrete indicators.

These goals, targets set for the goals and the concrete indicators are as follows:

  • Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education. For that purpose, a concrete target was determined.

  • Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

    • 1.

      Some concrete indicators, for the goal and the target mentioned above, have been determined:

    • 2.

      Net enrolment ratio in primary education

    • 3.

      Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5.

    • 4.

      Literacy rate of 15- 24 years-old.

  • Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. For that purpose, a concrete target was determined.

  • Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015.

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