Examining Data Lake Design Principle for Cloud Computing Technology and IoT

Examining Data Lake Design Principle for Cloud Computing Technology and IoT

Deepak Saini (Publicis Sapient, India) and Jasmine Saini (Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3445-7.ch012
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Abstract

In the Cloud-based IoT systems, the major issue is handling the data because IoT will deliver an abundance of data to the Cloud for computing. In this situation, the cloud servers will compute the big data and try to identify the relevant data and give decisions accordingly. In the world of big data, it is a herculean task to manage inflow, storage, and exploration of millions of data files and the volume of information coming from multiple systems. The growth of this information calls for good design principles so that it can leverage the different big data tools available in the market today. From the information consumption standpoint, business users are exploring new insights from the big data that can uncover potential business value. Data lake is a technology framework that helps to solve this big data challenge.
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1. History And Evolution

In this section, the foundational concepts about Data Lake are covered. This section will start with why and how the necessity of Data Lake arose, the various data lake related terminologies prevalent in industry, justify the need of Data Lake. Some design principles for Data Lake will also be discussed.

In order to efficiently store, organize, process, and present data, architects came up with a number of design approaches. These data management approaches are good for IT, however, these are not agile and easily understandable by business. Also its turnaround time and cost is higher than what business expected. This created a barrier between IT and business.

Figure 1.

Traditional design approach for processing data for reporting

Data architecture and data governance created by IT was rigid, as they constrained by high cost of storage, slow processing power of compute, whereas business needed agility and interactive insights fast. The time to change or implement a new request for a business insight was too slow. There was burning need to overcome this mismatch between IT and business, and increase the agility in data management solutions. Hence, it became necessity that both business and IT collaborate to manage the data. Figure 1 represents the traditional design approach for processing data for reporting.

In new era of data management, the traditional concepts of Online Transactional Processing (OLTP) systems, Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems, Data warehouse (DWH), Relational Database Management (RDBMS), Business Intelligence (BI) is augmented, but not replaced, by new concepts like Big Data Processing, Data Lake, No SQL, Predictive and Prescriptive Analytics, Data Science.

These new disciplines introduced whole new approach for data management. The approaches promote agility through flexible schema design, store all and discard none philosophy, massive parallel processing, distributed computation, etc. These new approaches are now possible because –

  • Storage cost has become cheaper

  • Computation of data is distributed in multiple machines.

  • A technology – Hadoop – was invented that harnesses the power of grid computing using numerous of community hardware in parallel (Author, Tom, 2015)

  • Scalability of hardware resources using cloud computing has become easy.

  • Capacity of RAM and cache has increased, enabling in-memory storage and computing

It is noteworthy to mention that the nature of data production has also changed. Take for example, logistics and postal service companies like United Postal Service or FedEx. In earlier days their transactions were mostly manually recorded, which was slowly and in limited. Today, most of their operations are automated. Not only the volume and speed of data has increased, but also the nature of data is highly varied. Consider the sensor data sending binary data-streams, machine logs, and data from social media, from mobile devices, RFIDs - there are many data sources and data types available now. Some of these data can be structured in rows and columns of a table, but most of these are semi-structured (for example machine logs) and even unstructured (e.g. image files).

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