Flood Hazard Casting and Predictions of Climate Change Impressions

Flood Hazard Casting and Predictions of Climate Change Impressions

Vartika Singh (Amity University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9771-1.ch010

Abstract

Climate change is a word that we have heard hundreds of times, but what is it? Is it happening or is it something made by us? There are thousands of such questions, thoughts, doubt which come to our minds as soon as we hear the words “climate change.” Even though there are hundreds of research works and many more proofs stating that the climate change is happening, there is a side which has been generally overlooked, and that is what if the climate change that we look is just something made by us. Climate change refers to long-lasting changes in temperature, clouds, humidity, and rainfall around the world. Both local and global factors cause regional climate change. This difference is significant because if a regional climate change occurs on account of local factors, then these changes can be mitigated by local actions. This chapter explores flood hazard casting prediction of climate change impressions.
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Introduction

What is climate change? According to the wired “ Climate change is the catch-all term for the shift in worldwide weather phenomena associated with an increase in global average temperatures.” There are many proofs that climate change is happening and one of the significant evidence is the melting of the ice in the North Pole. Big glaciers have been melting in the North Pole making the covered area smaller day by day. But according to different studies it is seen that the North Pole has a small island like structure with open waters surrounding it, whereas the South Pole has a closed structure. Due to these water currents in the North Pole are greater in comparison to the South Pole, therefore suggesting drifting of the accumulated ice in the North Pole towards the warmer currents which then results in melting of this ice. It advised that the glaciers in the North Pole are melting but are melting due to the natural cycles of the Earth. Although due to increased global temperature because of the human activities, the rate of this natural decay have risen by 4.4% per decade in the North and 1.8% in the South.

Another proof for climate change is the warming of the global temperature. Even though there is a cycle of the Earth, where it cools and then again warms up, but the global temperatures have risen dramatically. Not only does the Earth have cooling and warming cycles but our sun have these cycles as well, and they are known as the solar maxima and the solar minima. These cycles for the sun lasts for about 11 years at a stretch whereas the cooling and warming cycles of the Earth lasts about 80-90000 years for the cold period and 10-20000 for the warming periods. Even though we are in the warming period, but the temperatures of the Earth have risen dramatically, therefore causing concern for the scientists and people worldwide. Human activities have worked as the catalyst in the process of the warming cycle of the Earth. The current environmental situation of the world proves that the climate is changing but if we think for a moment this catalytic reaction in the fast pacing of the warming of the Earths warming period means one more thing and that is, the cooling period of the Earth will also begin earlier. But this being a far-fetched theory with no proves have been discarded by the scientists.

The second problem which has widely shown as a proof for the climate change would be looked in this extract, and that is the flooding or uprising of the water due to change in the climate and global warming, refers to the observed century-scale rise in average temperatures of the Earth's climate system. Climate change was caused happened by factors like biotic processes, variations in solar radiations received by Earth, plate tectonics, the concentration of carbon dioxide, global temperatures, and volcanic eruptions.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Vulnerability Assessment: Vulnerability assessment is a well-defined process which helps to ranking and classifying the problem or target. It provides the basic knowledge, background of risk, infrastructure information, awareness, environmental threats, and proper action.

Risk Assessment: Risk assessment is a process which helps to identify the foremost factors of risk, major the intensity of hazard, analysis of risk which is linked with hazard, control the risk factors, and reduce the effect of hazards.

Climate Change: When we observe significant change over long time period or decade, in heat, rainfall, wind pattern, and other climate conditions, we can say climate change is happening. It could be an amendment in Earth's normal temperature.

Hazard: The risk or threat to human life is hazard. It refers to any vulnerability present in an area or region that may have the potential to cause harm. Hazard happens due to any kind of natural or man-made activities, which may lead loss and dangers for environmental properties and human life.

Flood Valuation: Flood valuation is an estimation of monetary value which we use to control the natural flood, it’s helpful in management of catchment area flood risk planning of the catchment and also helpful in predation of flood risk guideline.

Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is an expansion which meets the needs of the present world with the ability of future generations to meet their requirement.

Livelihood: Way to earn money for food, cloth, place and basic needs is known as livelihood. It depends upon the capability of an indusial person, efforts, and hard work. Livelihood should be sustainable if people enhance their well-being and proper use of natural resource.

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