Food Grade Microorganisms for Nutraceutical Production for Industrial Applications

Food Grade Microorganisms for Nutraceutical Production for Industrial Applications

Hemansi (Central University of Haryana, India), Raj Kamal Vibhuti (Central University of Haryana, India), Rishikesh Shukla (Central University of Haryana, India), Rishi Gupta (Central University of Haryana, India) and Jitendra Kumar Saini (Central University of Haryana, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2970-5.ch016
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Abstract

Nutraceuticals are the food ingredients which have a proven beneficial effect on human health. These include low calories sugars, proteins and vitamins B complex, etc. Microorganisms, such as Lactococcus lactis, are ideal microbial cell factories for the production of these nutraceuticals. Developments in the genetic engineering of food-grade microorganisms have been very helpful for enhanced production or overexpression of nutraceuticals. This chapter describes the use of food grade microorganisms in industrial production of nutraceuticals. The main emphasis is on industrial production of these beneficial nutraceuticals by food grade microorganism. The diversity of microbial cell types, various approaches for improved nutraceutical production through process optimization as well as strain improvement of the producing microorganisms are discussed.
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Classification Of Nutraceuticals

Nutraceuticals can be classified on the basis of their pharmacological conditions, natural sources, or according to their chemical constituents. Some of the most common ways of classifying nutraceuticals can be based on food sources, mechanism of action, chemical nature, etc. The food sources used as nutraceuticals are all natural and can be categorized as follows:

Phytochemicals

These include broad spectrum bioactive compounds that are derived from various plant sources such as fruits, vegetables, grains and various other parts of the plants. Their main role is in protection of plants from various types of stress (abiotic or biotic) and these are also very effective in preventing diseases in humans as well. This category includes various important nutraceuticals and includes a variety of compounds such as alkaloids, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, isoflavonoids, curcuminoids and stilbenoids), terpenoids (mono-, di-, tetra-, poly-terpenes, lycopene, steroid saponins and carotenoids) and compounds derived from these.

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