Functional Electrical Stimulation Based on Interference-Driven PWM Signals for Neuro-Rehabilitation

Functional Electrical Stimulation Based on Interference-Driven PWM Signals for Neuro-Rehabilitation

Hiroshi Yokoi (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan), Ryu Kato (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan), Takashi Mori (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan), Osamu Yamamura (University of Fukui, Japan) and Masafumi Kubota (University of Fukui Hospital, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2196-1.ch019
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Abstract

Disorders of the nervous system can cause paraplegia, which prevents human mobility and decreases quality of life. A major therapeutic goal is to recover motor and sensory function in individuals who have sensory or motor impairments, due to an accident or illness, and to provide support for the performance of daily life activities. For this purpose, the authors developed a multi-functional system based on interference-driven electrical stimulation that can promote the recovery of sensory-motor functions. The interference-driven electrical stimulation method was developed using a mixed stimulation signal with a carrier wave at a frequency that has been shown to stimulate human muscle. The parameters of electrical stimulation were optimized using a grasp/open hand task and a flexion/extension foot task based on the brain activity following electrical stimulation. This chapter reports the experimental results of the effects of electrical stimulation on motor function and brain activity in partially paralyzed stroke patients during the three phases of stroke symptoms.
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Bmi Research Overview

A BMI is an example of a man-machine interface that provides a direct connection between brain activity and external devices. BMI has been studied as a potential therapeutic approach for limb paralysis of the sensory motor system, and many research institutes and universities are investigating its utility for lower leg rehabilitation. Signal detection methods are classified as either invasive or non-invasive depending upon the procedures employed. Invasive methods typically use multi-channel needle-shaped sensors that are inserted into the cerebral cortex or utilize a surface sensor placed directly on the cortex in a process known as electrocorticography (ECoG). Non-invasive methods frequently use electroencephalograms (EEGs) and/or functional near-infrared spectra scope (fNIRS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A classic example of functional, experimental, non-invasive output BMI using EEG is the brain-controlled wheel chair (Tanaka K., Matsunaga K. & Wang H. O. 2005). Non-invasive sensing methods offer significant advantages in terms of safety and comfort; however, the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (s/n) leave substantial room for improvement. Thus, a great deal of current research still utilizes invasive methods.

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