Group Decision And Negotiation In Strategic-Decision-Making

Group Decision And Negotiation In Strategic-Decision-Making

Tamio Shimizu (Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brazil), Marley Monteiro de Carvalho (Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brazil) and Fernando Jose Barbin (Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-976-2.ch013

Abstract

In the previous chapters, decisions models have been modeled based on the economic point of view of the problem expressed mainly through quantitative values and, in some cases by qualitative representation. The economic perspective draws unique coherence from economic assumptions of rational behavior and it draws predictive power from strongly valid rules of influence that employ mathematical or logical operators. Because the decision must be expressed in a way that is compatible with the rules of inference, great simplicity, and structure are required. In strategic decision making problems great effort has been directed toward relaxing the mathematical constraints, while retaining the economic — logic inference. Another important aspect to be considered is that in both theoretical and practical decision-making models, fixed numbers of decision alternatives or prefixed value of parameters have been considered. The major inputs to the analysis of an econometric model of decision-making process are subjective probabilities, utility values, and decision tree structures. Individuals may differ in their subjective value of probabilities, their utilities of outcomes or in their perceptions of the subsequent actions available. Strategic decision problems involve not only one person’s opinion but involve a group of individuals belonging to different classes and levels of interests inside and outside the organization. No longer is the problem concerned with the selection of the preferred alternative of one person. The analysis must be extended for a group of decision-makers, each one exhibiting a certain preference structure, perceiving different consequences, and corresponding to a diverse set of interest and responsibility. In some cases, depending on the number of persons involved as well as on the nature of the decision problem (for instance, promoting or hiring persons or, electing the president) it will be necessary to adopt a voting system. How can different groups of individual affect a decision-making process? In this chapter, we consider some behavioral aspects of individuals and group of individuals that may affect a decision-making process. Behavioral perspectives of competitive decision-making are neither as well articulated nor as complete as those of economic view. In behavioral views cognitive limitations and the use of mental effort are emphasized. In contrast to the rational approach of the economic frame, the behavioral views acknowledge that players may adopt different kind of rationality.

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