Guiding Framework and Principles for Technology Integration: What Are the Key Questions?

Guiding Framework and Principles for Technology Integration: What Are the Key Questions?

Minchi Kim (Purdue University, USA)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0014-0.ch004
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Promoting student utilization of technology has been a challenging and persistent theme in education for the past twenty years. Many teachers find it difficult to interpret and transform their daily routines to incorporate new pedagogies to promote such skills. Given the emergence of new technologies including social network, Web 2.0, simulations and games, and pedagogical frameworks to support learning and teaching with technologies, teachers are expected to use technology not only as an assistive tool to accomplish certain objectives, but also as a well-coordinated stage where students can learn more meaningfully and authentically. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss definitions, frameworks, and examples of technology integration and to elaborate on four key principles of technology integration: authenticity, collaboration, inquiry, and scaffolding.
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Conceptualization Of Technology Integration

Definitions and foci of technology integration vary widely. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES, 2003), technology integration is defined as “the incorporation of technology resources and technology-based practices into the daily routines, work, and management of schools” (p. 75). This definition underscores the importance of everyday uses of technologies in schools for instruction and administration (NCES, 2003); yet, it does not adequately explain the complexity, dynamics, and questions involved in technology integration, such as how this integration can be accomplished and what learning and teaching activities constitute successful technology integration.

Hew and Brush (2007) define technology integration as “the use of computing devices such as desktop computers, laptops, handheld computers, software, or Internet in K-12 schools for instructional purposes” (p. 225). This definition highlights the goal of technology integration in classroom environments. More precisely, Roblyer and Doering (2010) define integrating educational technology as “the process of determining which electronic tools and which methods for implementing them are the most appropriate responses to given classroom situations and problems” (p. 8). This definition underscores both the use of technology tools and the methods involved in determining optimal instructional practices using them.

Hughes’ (2005) classification delineates the three different variations in the pedagogy for technology integration: replacement, amplification, and transformation. Technology may be used to replace existing teaching practices and learning processes as a different medium with the same established goals. Technology may be utilized to amplify what teachers and students have been doing by making the process more effective and efficient (Cuban, 1988). Technology may also transform learning and teaching tasks and routines in a way that incorporates new pedagogies and technological affordances to foster student problem solving.


Promises And Problems

A vast amount of research has investigated the learning outcomes and processes involved in technology integration in the classroom. Studies have demonstrated the positive impact of technology on students’ academic performance when the use of technology is parallel to curriculum objectives and standardized tests (Bain & Ross, 2000). Some researchers have found that technology may enhance student long-term understanding of curriculum (Lehrer, 1993). Research also indicates that the positive influence of technology use may be greater when students work in pairs (Kulik, 2003) or groups (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996) for collaborative knowledge building. Technology can also enhance student critical thinking and problem-solving skills by providing an authentic problem context and just-in-time feedback (White & Frederiksen, 1998).

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