How to Manage the Effectiveness of Presowing Treatment of Seeds

How to Manage the Effectiveness of Presowing Treatment of Seeds

Aleksey Vasilyev (Federal Agricultural Research Center VIM, Russia), Alim Dzhanibekov (Federal Agricultural Research Center VIM, Russia), Alexey Alexeyevich Vasilyev (Federal Agricultural Research Center VIM, Russia), Dmitry Budnikov (Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia) and Gennadiy Samarin (Federal Agricultural Research Center VIM, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1216-6.ch011

Abstract

Variants of seed response to external disturbances were studied to determine the principles that should be followed during pre-sowing treatment. The approach that involves analysis of seeds' adaptive response has been applied. The basic organizational rules have been specified for external disturbance application to seeds. The use of informational method for studying the biological response of seeds on external actions made it possible to find the rules that have to be followed when pre-sawing treatment is performed with the use of electrophysical excitation. The essence of these rules is that the following sequence of operations shall be carried out in the process of pre-sowing treatment: to define the lowest energy level of external disturbance corresponding to the seed's sensitivity threshold, to organize cyclic action of external factors on seeds, to vary the amplitude of external factor within cycles, to vary the mode of external disturbance. The field experiments were carried out for several years, during which the pre-sowing treatment of seeds was determined.
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Reviews of seeds presowing treatment methods show that there exists a general response pattern of living organisms, particularly that of seed, on external excitation. This response may appear in both retaining the initial status of seed (biological resistance) and self-adapting to new conditions.

Reactions of plant cells on various external factors, particularly, on temperature change, appear to be similar to those of other organisms (animals and humans) (Rubin and Riznichenko, 2014; Aleksandrov and Kislyuk, 1994; Gamburg, Borovskii, & Voinikov, 2017; Shapovalenko, Dorovskih, Korshunova, Shtarberg, Slastin, & Nevmyvako, 2011). Therefore, further on, we will involve data related not only to plants but also to other biological objects, in the course of our study.

In a number of works (Garkavil, 2015; Sel'eGans 1979) any external factor making its effect on plants is considered as stress that results in adaptation and development of immunity to it. In the course of immunity development in plants, response of specific types is a step-wise process. First, non-specific reactions on stress occur such as change in membrane permeability, hyperchromatism, change of pH value, drop of cell membrane potential leading to the change of cytoplasm structure. Due to the effect of these short-term responses intermediate reactions take place (acute phase proteins synthesis, inhibition of vegetation and photosynthesis). In Table 1 provided below, the sequence of non-specific stress reactions transformation into specific immunity response is presented.

Table 1.
Sequence of transformation of non-specific reactions on stress (Rubin A.B. 1999)
1. Non-Specific Response
Change of membrane permeabilityChange of cytoplasm structureChange of pH value, drop of cell membrane potential
2. Intermittent Reactions
Synthesis of acute phase proteinsVegetation inhibitionModification of photosynthesis, etc.
3. Specific Immunity Reactions
Freezing tolerance
(hormones, + sugars)
Salt resistance (- hormones, + polyamines)Drought resistance (- cytokines, + abscinic acid)

It has to be noted that mechanisms of these transformations still remain unexplained.

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