Identification of Major FOD Contributors in Aviation Industry

Identification of Major FOD Contributors in Aviation Industry

Hammad Ahmed Rafiq, Irfan Anjum Manarvi, Assad Iqbal
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3658-3.ch014
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


Aviation safety is considered of paramount importance, and the Foreign Object Debris and the resulting Foreign Object Damage (FOD) is one of the major causes that put aviation safety at risk. FOD Prevention is thus a continual challenge for all aircraft operators and maintenance crew. It costs the aviation industry millions of dollars every year. This financial effect is a result of direct costs, such as harm to aircraft structures or damage of aircraft engines, as well as the indirect costs, which include flight schedule delays, cancellations, disruptions, and additional effort for the employees. In addition, on occasion, more critical than the financial impact, is the safety impact and potential loss of human life associated with occurrences caused by FOD. It is therefore ranked as the most likely potential ground-based cause that can lead to a catastrophic aviation event. The present chapter is based on statistical analysis of aircraft occurrences attributed to various types of FOD during the last ten years of operations in an aviation organization. Eight major cause factors contributing towards these cases have been identified. A broad FOD prevention and control plan is thus proposed to address the foremost cause factors and improve organizational response to FOD. The objective of the research is to promote ground and flight safety and the preservation of assets by reducing FOD.
Chapter Preview


The FOD related occurrences data for last ten years of an aviation organization was collected. This data was used to identify the month wise classification of FOD cases along with relationship of FOD cases with the hours flown by the organization. Moreover classification of FOD cases with respect to either air or ground was established. Similarly the error analysis of the FOD occurrences was made to identify if the occurrences were unavoidable or could be evaded through improved practices or workmanship. The finalization analysis of data was made to categorize the FOD cases of last ten years into following major groups:

  • 1.

    Engine FOD Ingestion Cases

  • 2.

    Miscellaneous Cases

  • 3.

    Material Factor Cases

  • 4.

    IOD Cases

  • 5.

    Human Factor (Ground Crew) Cases

  • 6.

    Engine Bird Ingestion Cases

  • 7.

    Human Factor (Air Crew) Cases

  • 8.

    Tyre Damage Cases

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: