Insilico Approach for Epitope Prediction toward Novel Vaccine Delivery System Design

Insilico Approach for Epitope Prediction toward Novel Vaccine Delivery System Design

P. Raja Rajeswari (K. L. University, India), S. Viswanadha Raju (JNTUH, India), Amira S. Ashour (Tanta University, Egypt) and Nilanjan Dey (Techno India College of Technology – Kolkata, India)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1025-3.ch012
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Abstract

Vaccines build a defense mechanism against the disease causing agents through the immune system stimulation and disease agents' imitation. Some of the vaccines contain a part of the disease causing agents that are either weakened or dead. Along with using vaccines with viral infections, it can be used against the various types of cancers for both therapy and prevention. The use of cancer's vaccines in cancer therapies is called immunotherapy. It can be done either by specific cancer vaccine or universal cancer vaccine that contains tumor antigens, which stimulate the immune system. This in turn initiates various mechanisms that terminate tumor cells and prevents recurrence of these tumors. The present work proposed an Insilico approach in epitope prediction and analysis of antigenecity and Immunogenecity of Haemophilus influenzae strains. It was interested with the design of a novel vaccine delivery system with better adjuvancity, where vaccine adjuvant is significant for the improvement of the antigens' immunogenicity that present in the vaccines. The conducted insilico approaches selected the best strain target proteins, m strain selection, epitope prediction, antigenicity and immunogenicity prediction of target proteins to find out the best targets.
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Introduction

Haemophilus influenza is a gram negative bacterium that causes meningitis and acute respiratory infection, mainly in children (Turk DC,1984; Booy et al., 1997). Invasive disease initiated by Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the foremost transferable diseases for young children (Rahman et al., 2008). Vaccination can be provided even for individuals at increased risk for Hib ailment who are already suffering from HIV infection, and immunoglobulin deficiency (Briere et al., 2014). Haemophilus Influenza is the most significant bacterial infections cause. Additionally, it origins an extensive range of other severe infections described by bloodstream invasion with the association of organ systems other than the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the effective antimicrobials availability, Hib is considered to be a substantial mortality and morbidity cause.

Haemophilus influenza is commensal bacteria to human upper respiratory tract (Wolf et al., 2007). There is an urgent need for a vaccine of this pathogen and still Hib disease post vaccination period cases are still reported (Bajanca et al., 2004; G-Kushnir et al., 2012; Galil et al., 1999). The constant increase of antibiotic resistant strains of these bacteria is one cause for evolving novel vaccines. The H. influenzae resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is an accumulative difficulty. The ampicillin resistance in this organism changes from 10% to 60% based on the terrestrial region (Bae et al., 2010).

Vaccination has a significant role to prevent influenza infection (Lottenbach et al., 2004). However, existing influenza vaccines have several limitations, such as

  • The high production time,

  • The limited vaccine capacity,

  • The lack of knowledge in population,

  • Dependence on egg-based production,

  • Regulatory approval procedure,

  • Limited worldwide vaccine availability,

  • Inadequate effectiveness in aging and unprimed residents, and

  • The cross-reactivity lack by present vaccines (Allan et al., 2005; Blain et al., 2014).

The possible solutions for such limitations includes:

  • The virus culture-based construction,

  • Synthetic vaccines,

  • Recombination antigens,

  • Increased steadiness of vaccines,

  • Increase the immunogenicity by increasing antigen dose,

  • T-cells vaccines, and

  • Cross reactive vaccines (Barenkamp et al., 1981; Foxwell et al., 1998).

The present status and the production developments of the influenza vaccines attract the researches focus to study the biotechnical aspects like production rather than clinical outcomes (Florea et al., 1998).

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