# Interdependence, Uncertainty, and Incompleteness in Teams and Organizations

William F. Lawless (Paine College, USA) and LeeAnn Kung (Auburn University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch079

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## Main Focus Of The Article

Tradeoffs. The interdependent tradeoffs to control a system requires channels that enhance the ability of management to diminish the destructive interference from inside or outside of an organization. It means that tradeoffs form cross-sections that reflect defensive and offensive maneuvers to expand or limit the size of an organization. Tradeoffs mean that as perspectives shift, what is observed to change in an organization also shifts (Weick & Quinn, 1999); that illusions are fundamental to organizational hierarchies (Pfeffer & Fong, 2005) by driving or dampening feedback oscillations (Lawless, Whitton, & Poppeliers, 2008); and that uncertainty tradeoffs explain why criteria for organizational performance has been intractable (Kohli & Hoadley, 2006).

## Key Terms in this Chapter

Interdependence: When two or more objects mutually influence each other. Also, mutual sensitivity, mutual connectedness, or where an action on one object affects the other(s).

Fourier Transforms: A representation of a signal over time can be transformed into harmonic frequencies in the frequency domain. A uniform sine wave is transformed into a single frequency. The Fourier transform and its inverse are known as harmonic analysis.

Fourier Pairs: The Fourier transform and its inverse form Fourier pairs; e.g., f(t) ? F( ? ) .

Entanglement (quantum): When one quantum object enters into a (quantum) superposition with another, characterized by having a mutual influence on each other that requires a description of both with reference to the other whether or not spatially separated.

Uncertainty Principle: When a system with a pair of observables, such as the factors of action and observation, that are not independent, but interdependent, precluding a precise knowledge of both observables simultaneously.

Social Influence: When an action on one or more individual(s) affects the other individuals in a group of two or more agents.

Tradeoffs: When one aspect of a phenomenon under uncertainty, such as a social decision, is improved while another aspect is lost or degraded.

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