Learning Models, Collaborative Work, and Project Pedagogy

Learning Models, Collaborative Work, and Project Pedagogy

El Moudden Fauzi (Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Morocco) and Mohamed Khaldi (Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Morocco)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1492-4.ch004

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of learning models, starting with the transmissive and behavioral model and going through the constructivist and socio-constructivist models to explore their possibilities and limitations in relation to computer-assisted teaching. In the second part of this chapter, the work addresses the topic of active pedagogies that are derived from the pedagogical models presented earlier by trying to give them a precise definition from other existing ones, and at the end, this work studies the possibilities of the use as a basis in online learning situations.
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An Overview Of Learning Models

Introduction

Distance learning has undergone several stages and transformations from a design point of view and still the use of computer technology in training and education. In the 1950s, Skinner proposed a teaching method based on the theoretical model of behaviorism. In this method, known as programmed instruction, the contents are broken down into small units to which the predictable responses of the learners are associated. Positive reinforcements are then introduced at each positive response. The first Computer Aided Teaching (CAE) is designed from this perspective. Content is presented to the learner for memorization. As a result, a question (usually in the form of Q.C.M.) is put to him. The computer immediately analyzes the response and returns either a corrected in the case of a negative response or a positive sign (congratulatory type) in the favorable case. Since then, many critics have been made about this method, it resists nonetheless.

This model, if it could correspond to the representations of the pedagogues of the sixties, was quickly discarded by the cognitivist model in the years 1970-1980. Cognitivists are not satisfied with external observation of learner behavior; they want to understand how these behaviors are produced and to identify the mental activities involved in the learning situation. The cognitive model defines human intelligence as symbolic information processing system in which knowledge is information that is processed, transformed and integrated into long-term memory.

Teaching strategies and content are modeled to improve the flexibility and adaptation of software to users to make EAO “smarter”; it is the generation of Intelligent Tutorials (T.I.) and Intelligently Computer Assisted Teachings (CIOs). But the constraints of computing remain very heavy and the results are not always satisfactory. The Piagetian constructivist theory emphasizes the active role of the learner during the construction of new knowledge and the need for a non-directive of the learner by the tool to promote learning. Thus, Papert (1981), relying on Piaget's work, will give birth to another conception of EAO in which the learner can experiment with new hypotheses and acquire knowledge without predicting a course of action. Pre-established learning was the case with classical EAO (1960s-80s) and Intelligent Tutorials (80s-90s). This freedom of action is a new reality in the field of EAO in the 1980s; this will foster, for example, the creation of discovery software based on virtual worlds. Then succeed in the course of the 1990s, the “multimedia” that integrates various media more or less complementary (sound, images, fixed and animated ...) and technical possibilities of communication network through the Internet. These theories thus allow the emergence of Computerized Environments of Human Learning (EIAH) in which the human interactions are privileged; Collaborative learning is a fundamental aspect of learning processes.

Today, it is possible to observe the influence of all these theoretical models within software or a platform depending on the different educational objectives (exerciser, free discovery, collaborative work ...).

In this chapter we will present a description of the Trans missive, behaviorist, constructivist and socio-constructivist pedagogical models and their relation to online teaching as well as their possibilities and limitations in relation to computer-assisted teaching.

In the second part of this chapter we will address the topic of active pedagogies and resulting pedagogical models presented and finally we will explore the possibilities of using them as a basis in online learning situations.

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