Methods of Reducing the Power Supply Outage Time of Rural Consumers

Methods of Reducing the Power Supply Outage Time of Rural Consumers

Alexander Vinogradov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Centre VIM, Russia), Alexey Vasiliev (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Centre VIM, Russia), Vadim Bolshev (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Centre VIM, Russia), Alina Vinogradova (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Centre VIM, Russia), Tatyana Kudinova (Orel State Agrarian University, Russia), Nikolay Sorokin (Orel State Agrarian University, Russia) and Nikolai Hruntovich (Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel, Belarus)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9179-5.ch015

Abstract

The chapter analyzes the power supply restoration time. The analysis shows that this time consists of the time for obtaining information about failure, the time of information recognition about failure, the damage repair time and the time of connection and disconnection harmonization. Each of them, in turn, is also considered in more detail that allows identifying reserves to reduce the power supply outage time. The chapter proposes reducing the power supply restoration time by going to the monitoring system combination of both operating modes and technical condition of power networks. Based on the study results, there are methods allowing to reduce the power supply outage time of rural consumers by means of automating rural electrical networks and improving the operating mode monitoring of power supply systems. The chapter also suggests a set of devices that allows to implement the proposed methods.
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Introduction

Statistical analysis shows that the damage causes of rural transmission lines within power supply outage are: operating shortcomings (45%), impact of natural weather phenomena (33%), impact of unauthorized people and organizations (15%), other causes (impact of birds, animals, etc.) (7%). Besides, it is noted that operating shortcomings also include tree falling and short circuits due to the touching of power line wires by the tree crowns. It results from untimely cutting of routes, wire breakage, falling of power transmission line supports, etc. It all leads to damage for both power consumers and electric network companies. At the same time, because of the lack of the operating mode monitoring systems as well as insufficient (or often completely absent) network automation, the power supply outage time for rural electrical networks is quite long (on the average more than 5 hours). During the year the power supply outage time for rural consumers is about 100 hours (OAO «Rosseti», 2013).

To develop methods for reducing the power supply restoration time, it is firstly necessary to investigate the components of the given time. In literary sources this aspect is not paid enough attention to, so it was carried out a series of studies based on statistical data obtained in the operation of electric grid companies and agricultural enterprises.

Evaluation of all time components of power supply outages allows developing methods for reducing them, which include first and foremost the methods for automation electrical networks. It includes methods of the sectionalizing and the backup of power networks.

Another important method of reducing the power supply outage time is to monitor the operating modes of electrical networks and their technical condition. It allows controlling the number and duration of outages in these networks, diagnosing outage causes as well as the voltage level deviation more than the permissible values. The monitoring system also automatically informs the dispatcher about the outages on specific sections of the electrical network considering the number and duration of these outages.

Thus, the purpose of the work is to develop methods for reducing the power supply outage time of rural consumers by means of automating and monitoring the operational modes of rural electrical networks.

To achieve the objective, it is necessary to solve a number of tasks:

  • 1.

    To analyze the structure of the power supply outage time and identify possible reserves for its reduction;

  • 2.

    To develop methods and means for reducing the power supply outage time by monitoring the operating modes and the technical condition of electrical networks;

  • 3.

    To develop methods and means for reducing the power supply outage time by automating electrical networks of rural consumers.

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Background

The recent power industry faces such challenges as the introduction of distributed power generation, the need to improve the power quality (PQ) and the reliability of power supply, environmental problems with traditional methods of power generation, the desire to reduce the expenses on the maintenance and modernization of power network equipment, and finally, the need to improve the power supply efficiency (Vinogradov et al, 2018). The works of both domestic and foreign scientists are devoted to these problems (Leshchinskaya & Magadeev, 2008; Leshchinskaya & Polyanina, 2005; Perova, 2007; Stepanov & SHpiganovich, 2015; Trojanowska, 2014). The development of technologies has influenced the improvement of distributed power generation, including renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage, as well as the development of traditional power supply systems. The main direction of power supply system development is the multiple complication of electrical network management systems. Despite the complication, this leads to an increase in the efficiency of entire power supply systems (PSS). PSS management schemes should consider the many uncertainties in the system that may arise due to the load starting and load shedding in the network in order to respond to them (Momoh, 2009). To solve these problems, many energy companies modernize their generation and distribution system, which leads to the use of Smart Grid (SG).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Power Supply Restoration Time: The duration of an emergency repair or replacement of a failed element of the power supply system.

Power Supply Consumer: A legal entity or a private person exercising the use of electric energy (capacity) on the basis of a concluded contract.

Point of Common Connection: The network point closest to the specific load of a user, where the loads of other network users are connected.

Power Supply Reliability: The ability of the power supply system to transmit and distribute the required amount of electricity from sources to consumers at standard voltage levels and in accordance with a specified load schedule.

Power Quality: The conformity degree of electrical energy characteristics at a point in the electrical system with a set of standardized indicators.

System for Monitoring the Electrical Network Operating Modes: A set of interrelated organizational and technical measures ensuring the monitoring of the technical condition of power transmission lines, determining the location and type of damage. Typically, monitoring systems use equipment complexes designed to monitor the technical condition of power lines, determine the location and type of damage, and transfer data through various channels to the processing center.

Power Supply Interruption Time: The duration of the absence of voltage at the customer input, connected with emergency or planned disconnection in the electrical network.

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