Microstrip Antenna

Microstrip Antenna

Nandan Bhattacharyya (RCC Institute of Information Technology, India) and Jawad Yaseen Siddiqui (Calcutta University, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8531-2.ch002

Abstract

The microstrip antenna (MSA) consists of a dielectric substrate in between a metallic conducting patch and a ground plane. The most common forms of the MSA are the rectangular and circular patch MSAs. There are several microstrip antenna analysis methods. The most popular models are transmission-line model, cavity model, method of moments, FDTD method, and finite element method. The transmission-line model is the simplest of these methods, and it provides good physical insight but is less accurate. The cavity model is more accurate compared to the transmission-line model, but cavity model is more complex. Though cavity model gives good physical insight, it is rather difficult to model coupling. The full-wave models (which include primarily integral equations/moment method) are very accurate, very versatile, but they are the most complex models and usually give less physical insight. This chapter explores the microstrip antenna.
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Introduction

Microstrip Antenna

In microstrip antenna (MSA) there is a dielectric in between a top metallic patch and a bottom ground plane. Input to MSA is generally provided using a coaxial probe or by using a microstrip edge feed. Usually the top metallic patch is shaped rectangular and circular. However, depending on application requirement patch shapes other than rectangular and circular are used to achieve desired MSA performance.

Advantages: low profile, simple and inexpensive to manufacture, conformable, mechanically robust, and very versatile.

Disadvantages: MSApower handling capacity is low, having low efficiency, high quality factor, narrow bandwidth, lacks polarization purity, spurious radiation.

There are several microstrip antenna analysis methods. The most accepted models are:

  • 1.

    Transmission line model

  • 2.

    Cavity model

  • 3.

    Method of moments

  • 4.

    FDTD method

  • 5.

    Finite Element method

The transmission line model is the simplest of these methods. Both transmission line model and cavity model furnishes good physical insight but it is difficult to model coupling. Compared to the transmission-line model, cavity model is more accurate but is more complex. Whereas full-wave models including primarily integral equations, Method of Moments are more accurate and versatile at the cost of increased complexity in modeling and less physical insight. These models could be used to analyze regular or arbitrary shaped element, stacked elements and arrays of elements.

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