Mobility Models for Ad-Hoc Networks: A Performance Analysis Perspective

Mobility Models for Ad-Hoc Networks: A Performance Analysis Perspective

Shrirang Ambaji Kulkarni (National Institute of Ecology, India) and G. Raghavendra Rao (National Institute of Ecology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0321-9.ch003
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Abstract

Multihop wireless networks hold a lot of promise in terms of military based ad-hoc network applications, wireless sensor network based applications, along with vehicular and inter terrestrial applications. The simulation of these types of networks is required to analyze the working of these types of complex networks. An essential component of these simulation based studies is the modeling of mobility of nodes. Thus many mobility models have been proposed to model the movement of wireless nodes with various constraints and real world scenarios. In this chapter an insight is provided into the working of various mobility models along with its classification. The authors also analyze the performance of these mobility models by measuring their performances with appropriate mobility and connectivity metrics. The mobility models proposed to meet the challenges of vehicular ad-hoc networks and delay tolerant networks are also discussed.
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1.2 Importance Of Mobility Models

The importance of mobility models can be characterized as follows.

  • To assist in meaningful comparisons of ad-hoc routing protocols, mobility models provide movement patterns that have similarity with real world movement of mobile wireless nodes.

  • Mobility models spell the main characteristics of ad-hoc networks (Sarela M 2004). These characteristics have implications on the degree of difficultness experienced by ad-hoc routing protocols. E.g. diameter of the network in hops; density of mobile nodes and mobility of nodes. Thus mobility models which exhibit less amount of network partitions, have stable links for longer durations and aid the performance of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks.

  • The behavior of mobility models can be measured in terms of spatial dependency, temporal dependency and average link duration, which helps to quantify their performance and assist in predicting performance of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks.

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1.3 Classification Of Mobility Models

The specific mobility characteristics of the mobility models lead to the following classifications (Bai F, Sadagopan N and A Helmy A 2003) as illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Mobility models for ad-hoc networks

Mobility Models can also be classified as given in [4]

  • Entity Mobility Model

  • Group Mobility Model

1.3.1 Entity Mobility Model

  • The entity mobility models represent a class of mobility models whose movements are independent of each other. Examples of entity mobility models are (Camp T, Boleng J and Davies V 2002).

  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model: A model that specifies pause times whenever the changes in speed and destination occur.

  • Random Walk Mobility Model: A mobility model based on random directions and speeds.

  • Gauss Markov Mobility Model: A mobility model designed to adapt to different levels of randomness by tuning a parameter.

  • City Section Mobility Model: Mobility model that constraints movement of nodes along streets of a map.

  • Manhattan Mobility Model: A mobility model which models movements of nodes in an urban area

  • Freeway Mobility Model: A mobility model which emulates the motion behavior of mobile nodes on a freeway.

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