Neurological Disorders, Rehabilitation, and Associated Technologies: An Overview

Neurological Disorders, Rehabilitation, and Associated Technologies: An Overview

Sateesh Reddy Avutu (North-Eastern Hill University Shillong, India) and Dinesh Bhatia (North-Eastern Hill University Shillong, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8567-1.ch003

Abstract

Patients with neurological disorders are increasing globally due to various factors such as change in lifestyle patterns, professional and personal stress, small nuclear families, etc. Neurological rehabilitation is an area focused by the several research and development organizations and scientists from different disciplines to invent new and advanced rehabilitation devices. This chapter starts with the classification of different neurological disorders and their potential causes. The rehabilitation devices available globally for neurological patients with their underlying associated technologies are explained in the chapter. Towards the end of the chapter, the reader can acquire the fundamental knowledge about the different neurological disorders and the mal-functionality associated with the corresponding organs. The utilization of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning by researchers to fabricate neuro rehabilitation devices to improve patients' quality of life (QOL) are discussed in concluding section of the chapter.
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Neurological Disorders And Classification

Based on the literature survey it can be concluded that humans are suffering from more than 600 types known neurological disorders. According to the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Neurological disorders are the leading cause for disability and sometimes lead to death. Feigin et al gave the brief summary on global, regional and national wide burden of neurological disorders for the period from 1996 to 2015 (Headache, dizziness, raised intracranial pressure, unconsciousness, Neurological problems and Neurological disorders). The international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) provides the description of health and related states. In order to design best or innovative rehabilitation device/therapy, the designer must possess the basic knowledge of various neurological disorders, causes and effects on performance of the organs. Any neurological disorder can cause impairment in movement, sensory and mental. The classification of the neurological disorder based on the nature of impairment is shown in table 1.

Table 1.
The classification of neurological disorders based on cause of impairment
Movement Related Neurological DisordersSensory Related Neurological DisordersMental Related Neurological Disorders
Ataxia
Cervical dystonia
Chorea
Dystonia
Functional movement disorder
Huntington’s disease
Multiple system atrophy
Myoclonus
Parkinson’s disease
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Restless legs syndrome
Rett Syndrome
Spasticity
Tardive dyskinesia
Tourette syndrome
Tremor
Wilson’s disease
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
Blindness and low vision
Hearing loss and deafness
Sensory processing disorder
Sensory hypersensitivity
Anger
Anxiety and panic attacks
Bipolar disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder
Borderline personality disorder
Depression
Dissociative disorders
Recreational drugs and alcohol
Hypomania and mania
Loneliness

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