Nutraceutical and Functional Foods in Treatment of Anemia

Nutraceutical and Functional Foods in Treatment of Anemia

Vandana B. Patravale (Institute of Chemical Technology, India), Namrata A. Kadwadkar (Institute of Chemical Technology, India), Shalaka R. Patki (Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy, India) and John Intru Disouza (Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 32
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3267-5.ch011

Abstract

WHO database mentions that the global anemia-affected population is 24.8%. To name a few conditions in which compromisation of the red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin occurs are iron deficiency anemia, gestational anemia, anemia due to malaria and parasitism, hemolytic anemia, sickle cell anemia. The line of treatment in case of anemia involves administration of iron supplements, plasmapheresis, steroids, blood transfusion at regular intervals, and lifestyle changes. The systematic approach applied for the pharmaceutical molecules should be equally inculcated in the case of nutraceuticals. The traditional system when woven carefully with the novel drug delivery system will give effective nutrient delivery. Functional foods have inherent nutritional value. Nutraceuticals and functional food cannot cure the anemic condition, but help the patient lead life almost like a normal individual.
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Introduction

Overview of Anemia

Anemia is a well-known public health problem majorly in gestational women and young children. The factors can be either being decreased red blood cell production or increased red blood cell destruction. The Figure 1 gives frame-diagram of anemia for understanding causes of anemia. A daily requirement of 20 to 30 mg of iron is required by the body for erythropoiesis and other biological processes. A lack of this supply of this iron or its absorption due to varied causes leads to anemia (Greenburg, 1996). WHO 2011 gives us a look at the worldwide prevalence of anemia; same is given in Table. 1. Figure 2 gives us an insight about the prevalence of the anemia on the global level in infants and children.

Figure 1.

Frame-diagram of anemia for understanding causes of anemia

Table 1.
Global and WHO regional mean blood hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia by population group for 2011 (WHO, 2011 , used with permission)
WHO RegionMean (95% CI) Blood Hemoglobin Concentration (g/l)Percentage (95% CI) of Population With AnemiaaNumber (95% CI) of People With Anemia (Millions) bPercentage (95% CI) of Population With Severe AnemiacNumber (95% CI) of People With Severe Anemia (Millions) c
Children Aged 6-59 Months
African Region104 (103 to 105)62.3 (59.6 to 64.8)84.5 (81 to 87.9)3.6 (2.9 to 4.4)4.9 (4.0 to 6.0)
Region of the Americas119 (117 to 121)22.3 (17.7 to 27.9)17.1 (13.5 to 21.3)0.2 (0.1 to 0.5)0.18 (0.1 to 0.4)
South-east Asia Region107 (104 to 112)53.8 (39.9 to 63.9)96.7 (71.7 to 115.0)1.5 (0.4 to 3.7)2.7 (0.8 to 6.6)
European Region119 (115 to 122)22.9 (14.9 to 32.8)12.7 (8.2 to 18.1)0.3 (0.1 to 0.8)0.2 (0.0 to 0.5)
Eastern Mediterranean Region109 (106 to 112)48.6 (40.4 to 57.0)35.8 (29.7 to 41.9)2.0 (1.0 to 3.1)1.5 (0.7 to 2.3)
Western Pacific Region120 (114 to 125)21.9 (12 to 36.9)25.7 (14.2 to 43.4)0.2 (0.0 to 0.6)0.2 (0.0 to 0.7)
Global111 (110 to 113)42.6 (37.7 to 47.4)273.2 (241.8 to 303.7)1.5 (1.0 to 2.2)9.6 (6.9 to 14.1)
Non-Pregnant Women Aged 15-49 Years
African Region124 (121 to 126)37.8 (31.8 to 43.7)69.9 (58.8 to 80.7)1.8 (1.3 to 2.7)3.3 (2.4 to 5.1)
Region of the Americas131 (128 to 134)16.5 (12.2 to 23.7)38.1 (28.1 to 54.7)0.5 (0.3 to 1.1)1.3 (0.7 to 2.6)
South-east Asia Region121 (117 to 126)41.5 (28.7 to 52.6)190.6 (131.7 to 241.3)1.9 (0.7 to 3.8)8.6 (3.4 to 17.5)
European Region128 (126 to 130)22.5 (16.4 to 30.1)48.4 (35.2 to 64.7)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)1.3 (0.7 to 2.6)
Eastern Mediterranean Region123 (120 to 126)37.7 (30.7 to 45.6)55.2 (44.9 to 66.8)1.8 (1.1 to 2.6)2.6 (1.6 to 3.8)
Western Pacific Region129 (124 to 134)19.8 (10.9 to 36.6)92.6 (50.8 to 170.9)0.5 (0.2 to 1.3)2.2 (0.8 to 6.0)
Global126 (124 to 128)29.0 (23.9 to 34.8)496.3 (409.3 to 595.1)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)19.4 (12.7 to 29.4)
Pregnant Women Aged 15-49 Years
African Region111 (110 to 114)46.3 (40.6 to 51.0)9.2 (8.13 to 10.1)1.5 (1.0 to 2.3)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
Region of the Americas119 (116 to 122)24.9 (19.0 to 32.5)2.4 (1.8 to 3.1)0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)0.0 (0.0 to 0.1)
South-east Asia Region110 (106 to 114)48.7 (36.1 to 58.9)11.5 (8.5 to 13.9)1.1 (0.5 to 2.2)0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
European Region118 (115 to 121)25.8 (19.8 to 33.6)1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)
Eastern Mediterranean Region113 (111 to 116)38.9 (32.7 to 46.3)3.9 (3.3 to 4.6)1.1 (0.6 to 1.6)0.1 (0.1 to 0.2)
Western Pacific Region119 (114 to 124)24.3 (15.1 to 37.7)3.6 (2.2 to 5.5)0.4 (0.1 to 0.9)0.1 (0.0 to 0.1)
Global114 (112 to 116)38.2 (33.5 to 42.6)32.4 (28.41 to 36.2)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)0.8 (0.5 to 1.1)
All Women of Reproductive Age (15-49 Years)
African Region123 (120 to 125)38.6 (32.9 to 44.2)79.1 (67.3 to 90.5)1.8 (1.3 to 2.7)3.6 (2.6 to 5.5)
Region of the Americas131 (128 to 133)16.8 (12.6 to 23.8)40.5 (30.2 to 57.3)0.5 (0.3 to 1.1)1.3 (0.7 to 2.7)
South-east Asia Region121 (117 to 125)41.9 (29.4 to 52.7)202.0 (141.8 to 254.3)1.8 (0.7 to 3.8)8.9 (3.5 to 18.1)
European Region128 (125 to 130)22.6 (16.6 to 29.9)50.2 (36.8 to 66.5)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)1.4 (0.7 to 2.7)
Eastern Mediterranean Region122 (120 to 125)37.8 (31.0 to 45.5)59.1 (48.4 to 71.2)1.8 (1.1 to 2.5)2.7 (1.7 to 3.9)
Western Pacific Region129 (124 to 134)19.9 (11.1 to 36.3)96.2 (53.5 to 175.3)0.5 (0.2 to 1.3)2.3 (0.8 to 6.1)
Global125 (124 to 127)29.4 (24.5 to 35.0)528.7 (440.3 to 629.4)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)20.2 (13.3 to 30.5)

CI: confidence interval

a. Anemia is defined as blood hemoglobin concentration < 110g/L for children and pregnant women and <120 g/L for non-pregnant women

b. Estimates of the number of children affected correspond to the age range 0-59 months

c. Severe anemia is defined as blood hemoglobin concentration <70 g/L for children and pregnant women and <80 g/L for non-pregnant women

Figure 2.

Global estimates of the prevalence of anemia in infants and children aged 6–59 months, 2011 Source: WHO, 2011

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