Odor Sensing Techniques: A Biometric Person Authentication Approach

Odor Sensing Techniques: A Biometric Person Authentication Approach

Yousif A. Albastaki (Ahlia University, Bahrain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2418-3.ch004

Abstract

With advances in technology and the never-ending goal of making life simpler for humans, it is obvious that odor sensing could lead to a better tomorrow. This chapter addressed the multiple cases in which odor sensing could be used and applied specially when identifying individuals. Various research has been carried out in this field using multiple other methods to assist create this field of studies. Most of research has been specifically focused on a single industry or field of application of odor sensing techniques. The work focused on and developed a system using artificial neural network with odor sensing techniques and laid the foundation for a general-purpose system that can be used for authentication and identification of individuals.
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Introduction

The expression “biometrics” is originated from the Greek words “bio” which means “life” and “metrics” which means “to measure”. The huge advancements in the field of computing processing enabled the emergence of automated biometric systems over the last few decades. A considerable number of these new mechanized approaches is developed by utilizing the ideas that were primarily imagined hundreds, even decades ago (Nancy, 2012).

Human face is one of the oldest and most fundamental characteristics utilized in identifying people. Since the start of the civilization, people have utilized appearances (faces) to distinguish known (familiar) and obscure (unfamiliar) individuals. This straightforward errand turned out to be progressively more testing as populaces expanded and as increasingly helpful techniques for movement brought numerous new people into-one little communities. The idea of human-to-human acknowledgment is likewise observed in social dominating biometrics, for example, voice and gait acknowledgment. People utilize these qualities, to some degree unwittingly, to perceive known people on an everyday premise.

Additional human special features have likewise been utilized since the commencement of human advancement as increasingly formal approaches to identify individuals. Stephen Mayhew in his article “biometrics update” (Stephen, 2019) highlights on the history and explorations of Biometrics methodologies and usage throughout the history of mankind. The following paragraphs spotlights on some different methods used throughout the history to identify individuals reported by Stephen Mayhew.

  • Handprints surrounding pictures painted on walls of Chauvet cave believed to be at least 36,000 years old is discovered in France. It is reckoned that these handprints verified the signature of the prehistoric men who originated and painted these pictures.

  • There are reports by explorers that fingerprints were utilized in Ancient Babylon to seal records or in marking authority papers as early as 500 B.C. The old Babylonians squeezed the tips of their fingertips into clay tablets to record business exchanges.

  • It is reported by (Garfinkel, 2000) that the first coherent report of the use of a form of fingerprints as biometrics is utilized by the Chinese merchants to settle business transactions in the 14th century.

  • Egyptian history reveals that the physical appearance of individual was used to identify and differentiate between confided traders of known notoriety and past effective exchanges, and those new to the market.

  • With the fast development of urban areas because of the industrial revolution and increasingly profitable cultivating by the mid-1800, there was an officially perceived need to recognize individuals. Traders and authorities were looked with progressively bigger and increasingly portable populaces and could never again depend exclusively without anyone else encounters and local knowledge. Jeremy Bentham and other Utilitarian thinkers played a significant role in influencing the courts of this period began to codify concepts of justice that endure with us to this day. Most outstandingly, justice frameworks tried to treat first time guilty parties more indulgently and recurrent wrongdoers even more brutally. Thus, a need for a formal approach that links the offenses along with measured identity traits of the offender is significantly identified. The earliest two methods used in this context was the Bertillon system of measuring different body dimensions, which initiated in France. These measurements were recorded on cards that could be sorted by height, arm length or any other parameters.

Currently, biometrics denoted a defining moment in the worldwide acknowledgment. It is widely used across industries, including mobile, businesses, airports, borders and healthcare and it is publically accepted. The most consumer awareness of biometrics technology is the incorporation of advanced biometric techniques into consumer devices. There are many applications for the use of Biometric Technology, but the most common ones are as follows: logical access control; physical access control; time and attendance; law enforcement; surveillance.

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