Selahattin Kaynak
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch015
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As a Southern Asian country with a dense population, an important strategic position and a substantial amount of security problems, Pakistan is a significant country and it is necessary to examine its socio-economic structure and its relations with other countries. In this research, various subjects such as Pakistan's demographic, socio-political, sectoral, political and institutional structure, economic potential, financial relations with other countries and socio-cultural interactions with other countries. As a result of the research, historicity of Pakistan's socio-political structure and its relations with other countries seem quite significant and decisive in the country's historical process, and it has also been observed that its financial relations is more among Asian countries. In the last years, some enterprises to make economic reforms in the country have been attempted but it has been figured out that the existing potential cannot be properly used due to the security problems.
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Population And Demographic Structure

Pakistan is a Southern Asian country and it is geographically surrounded by China on its northwest, Afghanistan on its west, Iran on its southwest, India on its east and the Indian ocean on its far south. The fact that it is a neighbor country of these Southern Asian countries reveals Pakistan’s significant strategic position (Bhurgri et al., 2006).

With its population of 191 million, Pakistan is the world’s sixth most populated country (Table 1). Every year there is an %1.92 population growth on average. This number equals to %2.57 of the world population. In the year 1947, which is Pakistan’s year of independence, the population was 32.5 and it is estimated to reach 200 million by the year 2020. Also by the year 2030, Pakistan is expected to leave Indonesia behind on the population basis; which currently has the largest Muslim population on the world. (Nizami, 2010: 2).

Table 1.
Selected demographic indicators
Total Population (Million)184.35188.02191.71
Urban Population (Million)69.8772.5075.19
Rural Population (Million)114.48115.52116.52
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Crude Birth Rate (Per thousand)26.826.426.1
Crude Death Rate (Per thousand)7.06.906.80
Population Growth Rate (Percent)1.971.951.92
Life Expectancy (Year)

Source: MPDR (2016).

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