Performance Analysis of FET-Based Nanoiosensors by Computational Method

Performance Analysis of FET-Based Nanoiosensors by Computational Method

Keka Talukdar (Nadiha High School, India) and Anil Shantappa Malipatil (Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College – Bidar, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1043-7.ch007
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Abstract

Human body has a hierarchy of structures. There are many organs which are affected much earlier by a disease when it is detected. Most modern sensors can detect anomalies when its concentration in the body fluid reaches to millimolar range. But more sensitive biosensors should detect disease from much lower concentration like femtomolar range. So, extremely sensitive biosensors are needed for early detection of fatal diseases at their early stage. It should detect the target molecule from a very low concentration of analyte. Also, molecules which we often need to detect are too small in size. So Nanotechnology and biotechnology should shake hand to detect nanosized particles from an extremely low concentration solution. Hence we are in a real need of a biosensor. Here we are interested in charged biomolecules and will discuss the performance of Field- Effect Transistor based biosensosrs by computational method.
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Background

The following review briefly describes the progress of biosensing technology until now including both experimental and computational contributions.

Experimentally there are many literatures which address the development of various nanobiosensors which are based on diverse principles of detection and produce different types of devices. Nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), naowire, magnetic particles, metallic platelets and graphene sheets are some of the candidates found to be used for this purpose. Not only in nanomedicine, biosensors are used in finding food pathogens, environment pollutants and in bioterrorism. Lee and Fauchet (2007) Synthesized high sensitive plane photonic crystal micro cavity biosensor on silicon insulator wafer. The authors presented their method both theoretically and experimentally. This methodology is helpful to detect extremely little mass of the order 2.5fg by getting the resonance redshift from the binding of glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin. The sensor can measure the dehydrated protein, so it has a different importance in the field of biosensing. The well agreement between experimental data and theoretical results points towards the high performance of such sensor. By the improvement of Q factor and proper positioning of the biological molecule, quality of the sensor can be improved. Zhu, Du and Fu (2009) developed rhombic silver nanoparticles for the localized surface Plasmon resonance of biosensor. The detection is improved from the triangular particles to rhombic nanoparticles biosensor. By this method, one can sense the refractive index sensitivity till 330 nm with the help of Discrete Dipole Approximation by algorithm designed method. To diagnose the genetic diseases in early stage, it demands the detection of the opposite base pairs in DNA. The silicon nanowire FET biosensors have wide importance because of its capacity to detect protein established on frequency domain electrical measurement (Zheng, Gao & Leiber, 2010). The measurement of antibodies of silicon nanowire bisosensor is done with the help of frequency domain and power spectral density of voltage. The frequency and general time arena measured with this setup with antigen concentration given more detection sensitivity for the frequency domain. The present work confirms the measurements of frequency domain are free set about general time domain measurements which leads to finding the high sensitive electrical proteins.

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