Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Nanofibers

Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Nanofibers

Khosro Adibkia (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran), Shadi Yaqoubi (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran) and Solmaz Maleki Dizaj (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1798-6.ch053
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Nanofibers as a main group of nanoparticles have a vast range of applicability for therapeutic purposes, duo to their outstanding attributes such as very large surface to volume ratio and high porosity. These types of nanoparticles are more known as tissue scaffolds and drug delivery carriers. Nanofiber-based carriers are able to control the release pattern of drugs. In addition, they can act as multidrug-loaded materials with programed dual release profile. Electrospinning is a simple method, which is recognized as the most efficient approach for the fabrication of nanofibers. Production of ultrafine fibers based on various natural or synthetic polymers is possible by means of electrospinning. In this chapter, a comprehensive review is presented on various medical applications of electrospun nanofibers in the case of tissue engineering and drug delivery. Several investigations on therapeutic nanofibers and their processing methods are also summarized in this chapter.
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Nanofibers are ultrafine fibers with nano-scaled diameter and very large surface area. High porous structure is also one of the outstanding properties of the nanofibers. They have many different applications in various fields; they can be used as filters to remove particles via different mechanisms, may act as vehicles for catalysts and enzymes, may be used as sensors, or may be applied to store energy (Fang, Niu, Lin, & Wang, 2008). Therapeutic applications of the nanofibers, as another advantageous aspect of these ultrafine fibers, have become the field of interest by many researchers who work on biomedical devices. Nanofibers with therapeutic purposes have shown a promising potential in the case of both drug delivery and tissue engineering (Fang et al., 2008; Sill & von Recum, 2008; Vasita & Katti, 2006).

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