Phytoremediation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Municipal Wastewater by Cyperus alternifolius Planted Constructed Wetland

Phytoremediation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Municipal Wastewater by Cyperus alternifolius Planted Constructed Wetland

Hossein Farraji (University Saiens Malaysia (USM), Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3540-9.ch008

Abstract

Nowadays municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment by phytoremediation techniques goes as an emerging technique in the USA and many European countries. Cleaning wastewater with constructed wetland (CW) is an advanced type of phytoremediation. Low concentration of hazardous metallic elements in this major wastewater caused its capability for treatment by CW. This treatment method highly depends on the presence of macrophytes, media, and operating factors which have high influences in the efficiency of this technology. This chapter will discuss on engineering controls that traditionally are available and practically could be used in the commonly CW. Recirculation, dry to wet duration, artificial aeration, absorbent application, dilution and carbon source addition through this eco-friendly decontamination method. The concentration of this manuscript will be on Cyperus alternifolius as a well-known rapid growth plant species which often known as an ornamental plant. This review on try to illustrate practical ways to enhancing efficiency of decontamination of MWW in CW
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Introduction

Municipal wastewater fundamentally divided into two types black water and gray water. Gray water is from kitchen wastewater, sink, washing machine and bathroom. This wastewater can reach up to 75% of the total wastewater generated in the household (Hernández et al., 2011). Black water comes from toilets with high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus (Zeeman et al., 2008). This kind of domestic wastewater should be considered as one of critical environmental problem since through the quality and quantity, it can contaminate the environment, interfere human health and other creatures. An increasing number of domestic wastewater causes negative impact on environment quality since it generally discharge directly to natural water like as river and lakes so it can cause increasing pollutant load on the water bodies. Constructed wetlands provide a greater level of pollutant control to discharge effluent to surface waters (Kadlec & Wallace 2008). The sewage discharge from the domestic sewage treatment plant is typically subjected to the local, state and federal regulations and standards. In December 2009, the Department of Environment (D.O.E) Malaysia has revised the Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009, which significantly reduced the discharge limit of ammonia-nitrogen from 50 mg/L to 5 mg/L. In addition, a new discharge limit was also set for nitrate at 10 mg/L (Kutty et al., 2011).

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