Plant Lipolytic Enzymes: Generalities

Plant Lipolytic Enzymes: Generalities

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7482-8.ch001

Abstract

The main plant lipolytic enzymes discussed in this chapter are hydrolases that catalyze neutral lipids (non-polar lipids), that is, lipases or those hydrolyzing polar lipids, for example, phospholipases (A, C, and D) as well as those of related field like diacylglycerol kinases, lipoprotein lipases, lipid phosphate phosphatases, and lysophospholipases. This chapter provides generalities regarding some important aspects of plant lipolytic enzymes from either higher plants or algae, such as sources, reactions catalyzed, and specificities. Major issues for purification of plant enzymes with lipolytic activities are highlighted in this overview. New insights into implementation of relevant proteomic and lipidomic techniques to identify and characterize plant lipolytic enzymes with the aid of internet resources are also reviewed in this chapter.
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Background

Enzymes with lipolytic activities are indispensable biocatalysts for the biological turnover of lipids and are of great importance to be used in many applications such as medicine, food and nutraceuticals. Lipolytic enzymes are required for digestion, that is, biocatalysts in the biochemical reaction of the transfer of lipid from one vivant organism to another especially from plant to animal or from animal to animal. These enzymes are, thus, essential in the metabolism of lipids of different origins, in particular in the intracellular lipids’ metabolism within the organism, as well as in the functioning of biological membranes and they play key roles in the deposition and mobilization of lipids, oils and fats, which are used as energy reservoirs.

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