Precursors to Web-Based Methodologies: Lessons We Can Learn from Teaching Machines, Automatic Tutoring Devices and Learning Hierarchies

Precursors to Web-Based Methodologies: Lessons We Can Learn from Teaching Machines, Automatic Tutoring Devices and Learning Hierarchies

Robert S. Owen (Texas A&M University-Texarkana, USA) and Bosede Aworuwa (Texas A&M University-Texarkana, USA)
Copyright: © 2004 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-93177-792-6.ch020
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Abstract

Many of us are using the World Wide Web in ways that are similar to the teaching machines and automatic tutoring devices of the 1950-1960s, yet we are moving ahead without building upon a base of knowledge that already exists from that era. This chapter reviews the basic ideas of the original automatic teaching and tutoring machines of those two decades — a linear programmed learning model and a programmed branching model — and compares these to hypermedia methods that are now enabled via web technology. Some classic ideas in assessing the cognitive and affective learning outcomes of teaching — somewhat analogous to usability issues of utility and likability — are reviewed. Greater emphasis on considering the educational outcomes is advocated when we use new online teaching technologies in programmed instruction.

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