Preparation and Application of Biochars for Organic and Microbial Control in Wastewater Treatment Regimes

Preparation and Application of Biochars for Organic and Microbial Control in Wastewater Treatment Regimes

Victor Odhiambo Shikuku (Kaimosi Friends University College, Kenya), Wilfrida N. Nyairo (Maseno University, Kenya) and Chrispin O. Kowenje (Maseno University, Kenya)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5754-8.ch002

Abstract

Biochars have been extensively applied in soil remediation, carbon sequestration, and in climate change mitigation. However, in recent years, there has been a significant increase in biochar research in water treatment due to their stupendous adsorptive properties for various contaminants. This is attributed to their large surface areas, pore structures, chemical compositions, and low capital costs involved making them suitable candidates for replacing activated carbons. This chapter discusses the preparation methods and properties of biochars and their removal efficacy for organic contaminants and microbial control. Factors affecting adsorption and the mechanisms of adsorption of organic pollutants on biochars are also concisely discussed. Biochars present environmentally benign and low-cost adsorbents for removal of both organic pollutants and microbial control for wastewater purification systems.
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Preparation Methods And Physicochemical Properties Of Biochars

Biochar, as earlier defined, is a porous material produced through thermochemical conversion of biomass in a minimally oxygenated high temperature environment (IBI, 2013). The production utilizes organic materials such as wood (Schimmelpfennig & Glaser, 2012; Liu et al., 2010), animal manure (Park et al., 2011) and agricultural waste (Demirbas, 2004). Most of these starting materials are readily available and quite often the choice of biomass will depend on the most abundant one in a given area.

Due to the diversity of these organic materials, field and laboratory studies have shown that the yielding biochars have different properties such as composition, porosity, BET surface area and total pore volume (Ozcimen and Ersoy-Mericboyu, 2010). Apart from the choice of initial feedstock biomass, the physicochemical properties of the final biochar product are also determined by preparation conditions such as heating temperature and reaction duration and activation methods applied (Onay, 2007). These properties play a vital role in determining their performance and application in the environment. The preparation methods used for biochar production include; pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)

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