Presowing Processing of Seeds in Magnetic Field

Presowing Processing of Seeds in Magnetic Field

Volodymyr Kozyrskyi (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine), Vitaliy Savchenko (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine) and Oleksandr Sinyavsky (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3867-7.ch024

Abstract

The reclamation of new areas or distant lands, which have limited energy and material resources, requires the use of energy saving technologies, which include presowing processing of seeds in magnetic field. The aim of this chapter is to reveal the effect that magnetic field has on seeds and to detect the most effective condition to process seeds in magnetic field before sowing and constructive parameters of the equipment. Magnetic field accelerates chemical reactions, which occur in plant cells, salts and fertilizers dissolve better, and the permeability of cell membranes increases, which accelerates the diffusion of molecules and ions. Due to this, the concentration of ions and oxygen molecules in a cell increases and seeds absorb water better. Presowing processing of seeds stimulate 25–40% seedling emergence and 30–35% germination. The most effective condition of presowing processing of seeds in magnetic field is 0.065 Тl magnetic induction with four times magnetic reversal and 0.4 m/s seed velocity. As a result, agricultural crop yield increases approximately by 20–25%.
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Background

Mineral salts, water and carbon dioxide do the synthesis in plants. All bio and chemical processes take place in water environment in plant cells. Water takes approximately 70% of the mass of live plants and from 5 to 15% in seeds. The molecules of organic compounds take 20 – 30% of a cell mass, ions of potassium (К+) sodium (Na+), calcium (Са2+) take approximately 1%. A cell has from 2 to 6% of nonorganic compounds (in the form of salts), vitamins and hormones (Yagodin, Zhukov, & Kobzarenko, 2002).

It is admitted nowadays that two mechanisms provide the import of feeding elements to a cell. They are a passive substance flow by electrochemical gradient and the active transfer against an electrochemical gradient (Yagodin, Zhukov, & Kobzarenko, 2002).

Ions go through membrane as a result of diffusion or due to solvent. Membrane also provides direct water flow and dissolved in it substances. The constant move of ions through the membrane supply new ions to balance the concentration.

Membrane determines a cell capacity of selective ions absorption. A big group of ion transporting compounds penetrate into membrane and form pores and canals which selectively pass ions through them (Yagodin, Zhukov, & Kobzarenko, 2002).

Membrane conducts the reaction of metabolism and energy. In a cell there are water and dissolved substance flows. They result in a gradient concentration and move of ions and molecules due to diffusion by a gradient concentration through membrane pores and due to neutral molecules dissolving which can well dissolve in fats, in membrane. Substance molecules try to balance their concentration in the system. Carbon dioxide, oxygen and water are main substances that move in a cell due to a simple diffusion. This is because their molecules are slightly polar (hydrophilic).

If parts have an electrical charge then the process of passing through membrane depends on the difference between concentration and the size of diffusion, which occurs between two substances with different substance concentrations which are separated by membrane.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Germination: The ability to form well developed seed sprouts.

Rate of Chemical Reactions: The change of the concentration of reactants or a reaction product per unit time.

Germination Energy: Seed capacity to germinate fast and together.

Diffusion: The process of mutual penetration of molecules or atoms of one substance among other atoms or molecules, which usually leads to equilibrium of their concentrations in the occupied volume.

Magnetic Induction: A vector physical value, the main characteristic feature of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field.

pH (Hydrogen): The value that shows the extent of the activity of hydrogen ions (H +) in a solution.

Biopotential: The difference of potentials between two points of tissue which reflects its bioelectric activity.

Magnetic Field: The component of electromagnetic field due to which the interaction occurs between moving electrically charged particles.

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