Quality of Service (QoS) Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Quality of Service (QoS) Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

R. Asokan (Kongu Engineering College, India) and A. M. Natarajan (Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-680-3.ch020
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Abstract

A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) consists of a collection of mobile nodes. They communicate in a multi-hop way without a formal infrastructure. Owing to the uniqueness such as easy deployment and self-organizing ability, MANET has shown great potential in several civil and military applications. As MANETs are gaining popularity day-by-day, new developments in the area of real time and multimedia applications are increasing as well. Such applications require Quality of Service (QoS) evolving with respect to bandwidth, end-to-end delay, jitter, energy etc. Consequently, it becomes necessary for MANETs to have an efficient routing and a QoS mechanism to support new applications. QoS provisioning for MANET can be achieved over different layers, starting from the physical layer up to the application layer. This chapter mainly concentrates on the problem of QoS provisioning in the perception of network layer. QoS routing aims at finding a feasible path, which satisfies QoS considering bandwidth, end-to-end delay, jitter, energy etc. This chapter provides a detailed survey of major contributions in QoS routing in MANETs. A few proposals on the QoS routing using optimization techniques and inter-layer approaches have also been addressed. Finally, it concludes with a discussion on the future directions and challenges in QoS routing support in MANETs.
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1. Introduction

The recent developments in the information super highway have made connectivity possible between users at anytime and anywhere in the world. From the Advanced Research Project Agency NETwork (ARPANET) to the present day 4G networks, Communication Networks have greatly influenced every facet of human life like commerce, industry, defence, government, home, recreation. Networking solutions have become an integral part of modern living. Mobile networks are required to support the seamless delivery of data, high quality voice and video. The mobile communication is generally and widely supported by wired fixed infrastructure. The mobile devices use single-hop wireless radio communication to access a base station that connects it to the wired infrastructure. In contrast, MANET does not use any fixed infrastructure. Mobile ad hoc networks are formed by autonomous system of mobile hosts connected by wireless links with no supporting fixed infrastructure or central administration.

The nodes of MANET intercommunicate through single-hop and multi-hop paths in a peer-to-peer fashion. Communication between these nodes are either direct or through intermediate nodes acting as routers. Thus, the nodes operate as both hosts as well as routers. Due to the limited range of transmission and several nodes may be needed to route a packet to its destination. Since the nodes are mobile, the creation of routing paths is altered by the addition and deletion of nodes. The topology of the network changes rapidly and unexpectedly. The concept of MANET is used in many application environments without requiring any infrastructure support.

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