Relationship Between ICT and Tourism: The Case of Mediterranean Countries

Relationship Between ICT and Tourism: The Case of Mediterranean Countries

Selman Bayrakcı, Ceyhun Can Özcan
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8165-0.ch009
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


The relationship between tourism and information and communication technology (ICT) is called electronic tourism or e-tourism. The use of ICT makes markets from local to global and has a positive effect in increasing the market share of firms. Managing, planning, developing, and marketing tourism data through ICT increase the development and economic potential of tourism. ICT has provided the strategic management of all tourism-oriented companies and revolutionized the operations within the tourism distribution channel, causing tourism-related stakeholders to reassess their actions and positions. The purpose of this chapter is to reveal the relationship between ICT and tourism in the case of 14 Mediterranean countries from approximately 1995–2019. Dumitrescu and Hurlin Panel causality test was used for this analysis. The main findings indicate that ICT stimulates tourism that, in turn, boosts ICT even further in some countries (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey).
Chapter Preview


International tourism continues to be the world's largest and fastest-growing sector, accounting for more than a third of the value of the global service trade. According to the International Tourism Highlights published by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in 2020, 2019 was another year of strong growth, through international arrivals grew below the exceptional rates seen in 2017 (+7%) and 2018 (+6%). Reaching two years before UNWTO's estimate, the tourism industry reached 1,460 million international tourist arrivals and 1,481 billion dollars international tourism receipts in 2019. For seven years in a row, tourism exports have grown faster than goods exports. It is forecasted that this growth will continue to shape the tourism sector along with digitalization, innovation, accessibility, and social changes (UNWTO, 2020).

Recently, a radical change has been experienced in the structure and organization of the tourism sector with the ICT applications applied around the world (Aramendia-Muneta & Ollo-Lopez, 2013; Buhalis, 1998; Januszewska et al., 2015; Minghetti & Buhalis, 2010). The convergence between internet-informatics and communication-multimedia has provided new channels for both tourists and destinations to strengthen their communication processes while reducing search and distribution costs (Buhalis & Law, 2008). All tourism-oriented companies, such as tour operators, travel agencies, rental agencies, cruiser, and hotels, are widely experiencing the increasing impact of information and communication technology. Therefore, the tourist-buying process is based on information collected from many different channels. ICT is focused on designing the new scientific paradigm (through innovation, collaboration, collaboration with customers) of tourism development based on modern e-technologies. ICT application in the tourism economy supports the effective functioning of businesses because it speeds up management procedures and increases both the efficiency and quality of economic transactions performed in a business. Using modern information technologies enables a tourism business to use its resources in the fastest way possible (Januszewska et al., 2015).

ICT can provide the necessary tools and applications to perform tourism management more effectively. Thus, ICT can become an important determinant of organizational competitiveness and efficiency by enabling the tourism sector to increase its market share and expand its capacity to initiate innovations (Aramendia-Muneta & Ollo-Lopez, 2013). The chapter aims to reveal the relationship between ICT and tourism. Accordingly, a demand model was created for 14 Mediterranean countries between 1995 and 2019. Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) panel causality tests were applied to the model.

In this chapter, first, the relevant Conceptual Framework and Literature Review have been made and the issue has been discussed by integrating it with the literature. In the continuation of the chapter, there is the Methodology and Conclusion section. Under the title of conclusion, the results obtained from the literature and the results of this study are discussed and interpreted.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Tourism Sector: The department that operates in the field of tourism, which includes many businesses such as accommodation, food and beverage and transportation, etc.

Individuals Using the Internet (% of Population): Computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, game machine, digital TV, etc. usage statistics of vehicles, indicator.

Tourism Demand: The tourist trend from a tourist sending center to a tourist attraction center.

WDI (World Development Indicators): Compilation, indicator of the World Bank's international statistics on global development.

Panel Data: Gathering cross-sectional observations of units such as individuals, countries, firms, and households over a period.

International Tourism: Participation of citizens of the country in touristic travel between each other.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: