Results and Discussion of the Main Study

Results and Discussion of the Main Study

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5103-4.ch007


This chapter presents the statistical analysis of the quasi-experimental study in which five types of written CF were examined. The results show that more explicit written CF types were more effective on facilitating L2 development. However, although participants are of different English proficiency, it was not found that proficiency level had an impact on the effect of written CF.
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Results And Discussion Of Rq1

In order to address the first research question, the overall accuracy of all three combined targeted linguistic forms in each of the four test sessions (i.e., pre-test, immediate post-test, delayed post-test 1, and delayed post-test 2), regardless of the very different nature of the linguistic focus, were examined first. Table 1 in chapter 5 displays the descriptive statistics for overall accuracy rates over the four testing periods for the five treatment groups and the control group, and Figure 1 provides a visual representation of the decline in or improvement of accuracy for each group across the testing sessions.

Table 1.
Mean scores and standard deviations by group and testing period (3 targeted forms combined)
GroupNPre-TestImmediate Post-TestDelayed Post-Test 1Delayed Post-Test 2
2.Error code2460.4116.4472.9614.1269.5115.3064.4919.08
3.Metalinguistic explanation2459.2618.2775.4017.9666.4318.5072.8713.94
4.Direct correction2456.5417.5975.0813.3772.1816.2068.9920.02
5.Direct correction plus meta-linguistic explanation2362.1219.6877.1014.0271.7415.7575.4014.73

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