Simulation of Fragmentation Technique Using ANSYS Software

Simulation of Fragmentation Technique Using ANSYS Software

Abdarazag Hassan (University Southern of Queensland, Australia), J. G. Alotaibi (The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait), A. Shalwan (The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait) and B. F. Yousif (University Southern of Queensland, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7530-8.ch012
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This chapter addresses the proposal of fragmentation test and its simulation using ANSYS software owing to understand the interfacial adhesion of natural fibre with synthetic matrix. Date palm fibres and epoxy materials are selected for the study. The influence of NaOH concentration and fibre diameter on the interfacial adhesion of the fibre with the epoxy are studied. The results indicated that the addition of the fibre to the matrix significantly improved the mechanical properties of the composites. However, an optimum value for the chemical concentration and the fibre diameters should be considered in developing such materials. High NaOH concentration deteriorates the tensile strength of the fibre. Meanwhile, low NaOH concentration exhibits poor interfacial adhesion.
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1. Introduction

In the recent years, the awareness of environmental protection is the concern of many engineers and researchers. Thus, the importance of alternative, sustainable materials and renewable technologies should no longer be a debating topic, (Hawken, Lovins, & Lovins, 2010; Michaelides, 2011). There are many ways to contribute to this paradigm shift. One of these ways is to develop composite materials as an alternative for metallic and non-metallic materials for the industrial applications. Scientist and engineers have effectively explored opportunities to develop sustainable polymer composites which were taken to minimize the environmental impact and to overcome the dependence petroleum resources, (Lepech, 2009; Silva, Alves, Ferreira, Oliveira, Reys, Ferreira, Sousa, Silva, Mano, & Reis, 2012). Recently, after the noticeable advancement of materials’ research and the advent of the introduction of leading edge fabrication techniques, the application of bio-composite materials in modern engineering technology is widely spread across industries; not limited to environmental protection and the maintenance of physical health,(Gottlieb, 2002; Sabo, Jin, Stark, & Ibach, 2013; Vroman & Tighzert, 2009). The literature has clearly demonstrated that there is it an interest in using natural fibres as reinforcements for polymeric composites. However, there are several limitations which adversely influence the use of such bio-fibre in composites. One of the main issues is the interfacial adhesion of the fibre with the matrix. In the recent years, a few attempts have been done to study the interfacial adhesion of the fibre with the matrix. The mechanical efficiency of the fibre-reinforced polymer composites depends on the fibre-matrix interface and the ability to transfer stress from the matrix to fibre as reported by many researchers, Moisture absorption, impurities, orientation, volume fraction and physical properties of natural fibres play constitutive role to determine the mechanical properties of fibre polymer composites. (Bledzki & Gassan, 1999). In some reported works, it has been found that there is a correlation between the mechanical properties of the composites and their wear and frictional performance. Therefore, this research will focus on both mechanical and tribological characteristics of the newly developed composites. The following sections will explain the influence of some important elements on the mechanical properties of the natural fibre/polymer composites followed by the tribological ones (Shalwan & Yousif, 2012).

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