Soil Sampling Procedures for Chemical Analysis

Soil Sampling Procedures for Chemical Analysis

Modupe O. Akinola (University of Lagos, Nigeria), Joyce Gosata Maphanyane (University of Botswana, Botswana) and Read Brown Mthanganyika Mapeo (University of Botswana, Botswana)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3440-2.ch011
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Abstract

This chapter describes procedures used in soil sampling and its analysis; as well as why there is need to sample soils and for what purpose. We also describe the different types of soils present in nature and compare the different sampling regimes used in soil studies as well equipment's used, and the associated reagents necessary for a specific analysis. The chapter provides background information to scientists engaged in soil studies.
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Types Of Soil Sampling

The type of sampling plan to employ depends on the size, topography, and soil structure of the field to be sampled. The approach to adopt in sampling a uniform site will be different from the one to use for a non-uniform site. In the same vein, the sampling method used for a field with little or no information, or record of previous sampling will be different from the one used to sample a field with a consistent record of sampling. For a uniform site, a random sampling will be adequate. For a non-uniform site, other sampling methods will have to be employed. When developing a soil sampling plan, the field to be sampled is broken into zones or grids. Within those zones or grids, soils can be taken randomly or taken at, or near the intersections. Soil test values from random and grid sampling are often used to provide a single estimate for an entire field. This value may then be used to calculate fertilizer application rates.

Double Sampling

In double sampling, a field is sampled in phases; hence, it is also referred to as multi-phase sampling. Estimate of the mean and variance obtained in the first phase of sampling are used to develop the design to be used for the second phase. The phases of the study may occur within a day or two of each other, or there may be several months between the phases. The interval between the sampling phases is dependent upon the time available for analysis and review. Double sampling is often used when stratification is deemed necessary to control some sources of variation within the data (US EPA, 1992).

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