Strengthening the Practice and Research Foundation of Andragogy Amidst Some Growing Controversy and Resistance to It

Strengthening the Practice and Research Foundation of Andragogy Amidst Some Growing Controversy and Resistance to It

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3937-8.ch002
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Abstract

Zemke and Zemke believed 30 ideas/concepts/techniques related with adult learning/andragogy can help toward accomplishing the job as adult educators. Tenant analyzed Knowles' popular andragogical assumptions and processes, while Hartree, Jarvis, and the Davenports considered Knowles' andragogy overrated in its contribution. Not to be deterred, Knowles' published his book The Adult Learner (third edition) and Andragogy in Action, a compendium of 36 positive organizational results of andragogy. Brookfield called American andragogy an unproven theory. Taylor offered a very strong and articulate research-based process model for Knowles' andragogical implementation of four phases and four transitions into learning for self-direction in the classroom. Henschke developed an andragogical assessment inventory entitled: Modified Instructional Perspectives Inventory (MIPI), which is Cronbach Alpha validated three times for reliability, including seven factors of which ‘teacher trust of learners' is the strongest factor with 11 elements describing its dimensions. This chapter explores this.
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Introduction

This decade garnered points for and against andragogy with help toward providing a firm foundation for andragogy. Zemke and Zemke (1981) believed there were 30 ideas/concepts and techniques that can give insight and strong practical focus to help accomplish the job of adult andragogy and self-directed learning. Brockett (1983a) substantiated that andragogy was used to help hard-to-reach adults become more self-directed to improve their lives. In contrast, Hartree (1984) and Jarvis (1984) thought Knowles’ andragogy didn’t live up to its promise, losing much of its appeal. Not to be deterred, Knowles (1984b) documented applying andragogy in 33 institutions across seven organizational categories. Young (1985) viewed European andragogy as being more comprehensive than American andragogy. Although Brookfield (1986) opined that andragogy was not a proven theory, Taylor (1986) from Canada, offered very strong, research evidence on how andragogy helped transition andragogical self-directed learning into transforming the traditional classroom. Feuer and Gaber (1988) shook the world with claims that in human resource development (HRD) adults learn differently from children. Henschke’s (1989) Andragogical Instructor Perspectives Inventory research showed “teacher trust of learners” – comprising 11 solid elements – as the strongest factor in andragogy. Finally, Knowles’ (1991) dream of andragogical lifelong learning focuses its strength on “getting in touch with curiosities,”

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